2 Chapter: The Nonliving Environment Table of ContentsChapter: The NonlivingEnvironmentSection 1: Abiotic FactorsSection 2: Cycles in NatureSection 3: Energy Flow
3 Environmental Factors Abiotic Factors1Environmental FactorsBiotic factors - features of the environment that are alive, or were once aliveAbiotic factors - nonliving, physical features of the environment
4 Air 1 Atmosphere - air that surrounds Earth 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen Abiotic Factors1AirAtmosphere - air that surrounds Earth78% nitrogen21% oxygen
5 Air 1 CO2 - required for photosynthesis. Oxygen released Abiotic Factors1AirCO2 - required for photosynthesis.Oxygen released
6 Abiotic Factors1Respiration - cells use oxygen to release the chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
7 Water 1 Organisms - 50 to 95% H2O More H2O = More diversity Abiotic Factors1WaterOrganisms - 50 to 95% H2OMore H2O = More diversity
8 Abiotic Factors1SoilSoil - mixture of mineral and rock particles, the remains of dead organisms, water, and air
18 Question 1 1 Which is an abiotic factor? A. insects B. plants C. trees Section Check1Question 1Which is an abiotic factor?A. insectsB. plantsC. treesD. water
19 Section Check1AnswerThe answer is D. Non-living, physical features of the environment are abiotic.
20 Section Check1Question 2_______ and _______ are the two most important components of climate for the majority of living things.AnswerThe answer is temperature and precipitation. The average temperature and rainfall in an area influence the type of life found there.
21 Section Check1Question 3Which best describes this illustration?
22 1 A. the greenhouse effect B. the nitrogen cycle C. the rain shadow Section Check1A. the greenhouseeffectB. the nitrogencycleC. the rain shadowD. the water cycle
23 Section Check1AnswerThe answer is C. As wind blows toward one side of the mountain, air is forced upward by the mountain’s shape. The air cools and releases its moisture as rain or snow, losing most of its moisture before reaching the other side of the mountain.
24 The Cycles of Matter 2 Biosphere - fixed amount of Water Carbon Cycles in Nature2The Cycles of MatterBiosphere - fixed amount ofWaterCarbonNitrogenOxygenConstant supply of light
25 The Water Cycle 2 Evaporation - liquid water changes into water vapor Cycles in Nature2The Water CycleEvaporation - liquid water changes into water vapor
26 Cycles in Nature2The Water CycleTranspiration - water vapor enters the atmosphere from plant leaves
27 Condensation - changing a gas to a liquid Cycles in Nature2Condensation - changing a gas to a liquid
28 Water cycle - surface atmosphere surface Cycles in Nature2Water cycle - surface atmosphere surface
30 Nitrogen cycle – atmosphere soil organisms atmosphere Cycles in Nature2Nitrogen cycle – atmosphere soil organisms atmosphereNitrogen - necessary ingredient of proteinsCannot be used directly from airNitrogen fixation - soil bacteria forming useable nitrogen compoundsWhen things die, nitrogen returns to the soil or to the atmosphere.
33 Cycles in Nature2Carbon cycle carbon molecules move between the living and nonliving world.
34 The Carbon Cycle 2 CO2 removed from the air during photosynthesis. Cycles in Nature2The Carbon CycleCO2 removed from the air during photosynthesis.Respiration uses oxygen and releases CO2.Photosynthesis uses CO2 and releases oxygen.
35 Question 1 2 Which letter corresponds with condensation? A. A B. B Section Check2Question 1Which letter corresponds with condensation?A. AB. BC. CD. D
36 Section Check2AnswerThe answer is C. Condensation is the process of changing from a gas to a liquid.
37 Section Check2Question 2_______ is the process by which certain soil bacteria transform nitrogen into the usable nitrogen compounds plants need.A. nitrogen cycleB. nitrogen eliminationC. nitrogen fixationD. nitrogenation
38 Section Check2AnswerThe answer is C. The nitrogen cycle is the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere.
39 Section Check2Question 3Which is NOT a means of replacing nitrogen compounds in soil?A. animal manureB. compostC. fertilizersD. planting crops such as corn or wheat
40 Section Check2AnswerThe answer is D. When crops such as wheat and corn are planted, most of the plant is removed when it is harvested. The plants are not left in the field to decay and return their nitrogen compounds to the soil.
41 Converting Energy 3 Matter - recycled Energy - NOT recycled Energy Flow3Converting EnergyMatter - recycledEnergy - NOT recycledconverted from one form to anotherPhotosynthesis - light energy converted into chemical energy
42 Energy Flow3Chemosynthesis - production of energy-rich nutrient molecules from chemicals
43 Energy Flow3Food ChainsFood chain - shows how matter and energy pass from one organism to another
44 made up of many different food chains Energy Flow3Food web – shows feeding relationships among the organisms in a communitymade up of many different food chains
45 Energy Flow3Energy PyramidsAvailable energy - reduced as you move from one level to the next in a food chainEnergy used for: respiration, digestion, life processes (most given off as heat)
47 Available Energy 3 Energy pyramid - shows the amount of Energy Flow3Available EnergyEnergy pyramid - shows the amount ofenergy available at each feeding level in an ecosystem.About 10% of the energy available at each feeding level is transferred to next level
48 Question 1 Answer 3 All living things are made of _______. Section Check3Question 1All living things are made of _______.AnswerThe answer is matter. Matter can be recycled over and over again.
49 Section Check3Question 2The production of energy-rich nutrient molecules from chemicals is called _______.AnswerThe answer is chemosynthesis. Consumers living in hydrothermal vent communities rely on chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrients and energy.
50 Section Check3Question 3Which best describes the level of the energy pyramid with the leastenergy?A. bottom levelB. herbivoresC. producersD. top level
51 Section Check3AnswerThe answer is D. As you move up the pyramid, the transfer of energy is less efficient and each level becomes smaller. Carnivores are at the top level of the pyramid.
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