Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4-3: Cycling of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4-3: Cycling of Matter What is the water cycle?Why are plants and animals important for carbon and oxygen in an ecosystem?Why must nitrogen cycle through an ecosystem?Why must phosphorus cycle through an ecosystem?
2 Carbon CycleCarbon is an essential component of proteins, carbohydrates and fatsC is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water and organisms – continuouslyFinite amount of carbon – must be reusedProducers obtain CO2 and turn it into organic compounds using photosynthesis
3 FuelProducers (plants) and consumers use carbohydrates as fuel and release CO2Carbohydrates are used for1. provide fuel (energy),2. biomass (growth,cells,materials) and3. waste (chemical and heat).
5 Short term Carbon cycle Short term cycle 1. CO2 in air/water2. into plants;3. photosynthesis-4. Makes carbohydrates5. consumed6. respiration (back to CO2 )7. and biomass8. food web
6 Long term Carbon cycle Long term cycle carbonates are added to the soil and lakesand fossil fuels can be created with pressure over geologic time
7 Other impactsNatural burning (forest fires) release CO2 into atmospherePower plant, factory and vehicle emissions also release CO2 into atmosphere.Cars = 1/3 of CO2 emissions (overall total 6 billion metric tons)
8 Fossil FuelsFossil fuels are made from fossilized trees and animals and shells…Hard to make/ remake when used up – becauseNot a short term situation…. Don’t let the pictures fool you into thinking that road-kill becomes carbon in the soil….and its instantly a fossil
9 CLIMATE CHANGE vs. GLOBAL WARMING Climate change means the there is an overall, long term change in the climate….more storms, more draught, higher temps as well as colder temps….more extremes in conditionsGlobal warming would apply to areas that are getting warmer.There is a lot more going on.Some changes due to activities of man (pollution, industry, deforestation….)Some changes may be part of natural cycle
10 NITROGEN CYCLEAll organisms need nitrogen to build amino acids so they can make proteins.Cells are composed of proteins – “Everything in the cell either is protein or is run by a protein”N is also found in the nucleic acids (ATCG and U) that make up DNA
11 Atmospheric Nitrogen 78% of atmospheric gases are nitrogen Atmospheric nitrogen (N2 gas) is not usable by most organismsOrganisms that can “fix” N2 into usable formats are called Nitrogen fixing bacteria.
12 Nitrogen FixationNitrogen fixing bacteria are crucial to the nitrogen cycle.Bacteria take N2 gas from the atmosphere and turn it into usable moleculesNitrogen fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with cells in the roots of legumes (beans, peas & clover --soybeans & hay)N2 is turned into nitrates and nitrites (NO2 and NO3)Nitrates and nitrites are released into the soil
13 Plants and nitrogenPlants that are not legumes get NO2 and NO3 from soil and use it to build proteinsDecomposers break down waste, urine, dead leaves, decaying organisms…. Into nitrogen sources. (ammonia, NH3, NH4+ and some gaseous N2)Lightening strikes can also convert N to usable forms
15 Assimilation, Ammonification, etc. The process by which organisms get nitrogenPlants assimilate nitrogen from the soil into the organic compounds they produceAnimals (heterotrophs) assimilate nitrogen that is in the amino acids and nucleic acids they eat from producers into their own body mass.Ammonification is the process where nitrogen containing compounds are broken down and released from waste or decay (turned to NH4)Nitrification – converts ammonia to NO3 and NO2Denitrification – takes NO3 and NO2 and turns it back into nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
16 Water CycleWater has to move to and from the atmosphere, land and bodies of water.Water is also found under the surface as ground water.Water in lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, wetlands and puddles is called surface water¾ of the surface of the globe is covered in waterOnly % of it is fresh water (the rest of it is marine=salty)….most of North America’s fresh water is in the Great lakes region
17 Flow of Water Solid, liquid and gas (vapor) forms Land, ice, bodies of water, the atmosphere and LIVING ORGANSIMSPhysical factors like temperature, temperature differences, wind and pressure impact water flow.
19 Water cycle termsPrecipitation any form of water that falls from the clouds to the earth (rain, snow, sleet and hail)Transpiration the process by which plants release water vapor to the air from their stomataEvaporation water changing state from liquid to vapor (gas)Water vapor water in a gas form
20 More vocabularyRun-off water that falls on a solid surface and then is absorbed into the soil or moves toward a river/ body of waterPercolation the process of water being absorbed into the soil/becoming ground waterGround water
21 Water Cycle Water in the atmosphere (clouds) Change in temp and/or pressurePrecipitatesFalls onLand and percolates into soil (not just in soil but also springs and water table)Land and is run-off; goes toward body of waterWater and staysWater evaporates from surface of lake/oceanWater back in atmosphere
22 Water is used by plantsRequired for photosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Water is a large component of all living things – cytoplasm, blood, tissue, roots, stemsWater is needed for chemical reactions like dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis