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Chapter 4-3: Cycling of Matter

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4-3: Cycling of Matter"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4-3: Cycling of Matter
What is the water cycle? Why are plants and animals important for carbon and oxygen in an ecosystem? Why must nitrogen cycle through an ecosystem? Why must phosphorus cycle through an ecosystem?

2 Carbon Cycle Carbon is an essential component of proteins, carbohydrates and fats C is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water and organisms – continuously Finite amount of carbon – must be reused Producers obtain CO2 and turn it into organic compounds using photosynthesis

3 Fuel Producers (plants) and consumers use carbohydrates as fuel and release CO2 Carbohydrates are used for 1. provide fuel (energy), 2. biomass (growth,cells,materials) and 3. waste (chemical and heat).

4 .

5 Short term Carbon cycle
Short term cycle  1. CO2 in air/water 2. into plants; 3. photosynthesis- 4. Makes carbohydrates 5. consumed 6. respiration (back to CO2 ) 7. and biomass 8. food web

6 Long term Carbon cycle Long term cycle 
carbonates are added to the soil and lakes and fossil fuels can be created with pressure over geologic time

7 Other impacts Natural burning (forest fires) release CO2 into atmosphere Power plant, factory and vehicle emissions also release CO2 into atmosphere. Cars = 1/3 of CO2 emissions (overall total 6 billion metric tons)

8 Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are made from fossilized trees and animals and shells… Hard to make/ remake when used up – because Not a short term situation…. Don’t let the pictures fool you into thinking that road-kill becomes carbon in the soil….and its instantly a fossil

Climate change means the there is an overall, long term change in the climate….more storms, more draught, higher temps as well as colder temps….more extremes in conditions Global warming would apply to areas that are getting warmer. There is a lot more going on. Some changes due to activities of man (pollution, industry, deforestation….) Some changes may be part of natural cycle

10 NITROGEN CYCLE All organisms need nitrogen to build amino acids so they can make proteins. Cells are composed of proteins – “Everything in the cell either is protein or is run by a protein” N is also found in the nucleic acids (ATCG and U) that make up DNA

11 Atmospheric Nitrogen 78% of atmospheric gases are nitrogen
Atmospheric nitrogen (N2 gas) is not usable by most organisms Organisms that can “fix” N2 into usable formats are called Nitrogen fixing bacteria.

12 Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixing bacteria are crucial to the nitrogen cycle. Bacteria take N2 gas from the atmosphere and turn it into usable molecules Nitrogen fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with cells in the roots of legumes (beans, peas & clover --soybeans & hay) N2 is turned into nitrates and nitrites (NO2 and NO3) Nitrates and nitrites are released into the soil

13 Plants and nitrogen Plants that are not legumes get NO2 and NO3 from soil and use it to build proteins Decomposers break down waste, urine, dead leaves, decaying organisms…. Into nitrogen sources. (ammonia, NH3, NH4+ and some gaseous N2) Lightening strikes can also convert N to usable forms


15 Assimilation, Ammonification, etc.
The process by which organisms get nitrogen Plants assimilate nitrogen from the soil into the organic compounds they produce Animals (heterotrophs) assimilate nitrogen that is in the amino acids and nucleic acids they eat from producers into their own body mass. Ammonification is the process where nitrogen containing compounds are broken down and released from waste or decay (turned to NH4) Nitrification – converts ammonia to NO3 and NO2 Denitrification – takes NO3 and NO2 and turns it back into nitrogen gas in the atmosphere

16 Water Cycle Water has to move to and from the atmosphere, land and bodies of water. Water is also found under the surface as ground water. Water in lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, wetlands and puddles is called surface water ¾ of the surface of the globe is covered in water Only % of it is fresh water (the rest of it is marine=salty)….most of North America’s fresh water is in the Great lakes region

17 Flow of Water Solid, liquid and gas (vapor) forms
Land, ice, bodies of water, the atmosphere and LIVING ORGANSIMS Physical factors like temperature, temperature differences, wind and pressure impact water flow.


19 Water cycle terms Precipitation any form of water that falls from the clouds to the earth (rain, snow, sleet and hail) Transpiration the process by which plants release water vapor to the air from their stomata Evaporation water changing state from liquid to vapor (gas) Water vapor water in a gas form

20 More vocabulary Run-off water that falls on a solid surface and then is absorbed into the soil or moves toward a river/ body of water Percolation the process of water being absorbed into the soil/becoming ground water Ground water

21 Water Cycle Water in the atmosphere (clouds)
Change in temp and/or pressure Precipitates Falls on Land and percolates into soil (not just in soil but also springs and water table) Land and is run-off; goes toward body of water Water and stays Water evaporates from surface of lake/ocean Water back in atmosphere

22 Water is used by plants Required for photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Water is a large component of all living things – cytoplasm, blood, tissue, roots, stems Water is needed for chemical reactions like dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis

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