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9 How Nerve Signals Maintain Homeostasis

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Presentation on theme: "9 How Nerve Signals Maintain Homeostasis"— Presentation transcript:

1 9 How Nerve Signals Maintain Homeostasis
9.1 The Importance of the Nervous System Page 1

2 9.1: The Importance of the Nervous System
The nervous system is an elaborate communication system that has more than 100 billion nerve cells in the brain alone. Memory, learning and language are all a part of the nervous system. Has two divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

3 Vertebrate Nervous System
Central nervous System (CNS): The nerves in the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Nerves that carry info. Between the organs and the CNS

4 CNS is all the nerves of the brain and spinal cord and is the coordinating centre for incoming and outgoing information. The PNS include the nerves that carry information between the organs of the body and the CNS PNS can be divided further into the somatic and autonomic nerves. Somatic: controls the skeletal muscle, bones and skin. Autonomic: special motor nerves that control the internal organs of the body. Autonomic can be subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic.

5 Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nerves: Controls skeletal muscles, bones and skin Brings information from the external environment to the CNS Motor somatic nerves

6 Controls the skeletal muscles
What do the somatic nerves control? Controls the skeletal muscles 

7 Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nerves: Motor nerves that control organs


9 Is this sensory, integrative, or motor input?
monitor: temperature, light, and sound, ETC. Inside the body receptors detect variations in: pressure, pH, carbon dioxide concentration, and the levels of various electrolytes.

10 Is this sensory, integrative, or motor input?
signals are brought together to: create sensations, to produce thoughts, or to add to memory. Decisions are made based on the sensory input. This is integration. Integrative

11 Is this sensory, integrative, or motor input?
nervous system responds by: sending signals to muscles, causing them to contract, or to glands, causing them to produce secretions. muscles and glands are called effectors they cause an effect in response to directions from the nervous system. This is the motor output or response motor input

12 Anatomy of a Nerve Cell Glial Cells:
Structural support and metabolism of nerve cells Non-conducting Neurons: Sensory neurons Interneurons Motor Neurons

13 Sensory Neurons Afferent neurons
Sense and relay stimuli (information) from the environment to the CNS Located in clusters outside of the spinal cord

14 Interneurons/Association Neurons
Neurons that link together neurons in the body Mainly in the spinal cord and brain human brain contains ~100 billion (1011) interneurons averaging 1000 synapses on each or some 1014 connections

15 Motor Neurons Efferent Neurons Relay information to the effectors
Muscles, organs and glands The axons connecting your spinal cord to your foot can be as much as 1 m long (although only a few micrometers in diameter).

16 What are the three parts of all neurons?
Dendrites The cell body The axon


18 Neuron Structure Dendrites: Receive information
Conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body Axon: Sends nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons (effectors) Myelin Sheath: White coat of fatty protein that covers some axons

19 Neuron Structure Schwann Cells:
Individual cells that compose the myelin sheath Insulates the nerve cell Nodes of Ranvier: Areas between the sections of myeline sheath


21 The Speed of Nerve Impulses
Myelinated nerve fibres speed up nerve impulses Nerve impulses jump from one node to another… speeding up nerve action




25 Reflex Arcs

26 What are the 3 overlapping nervous system functions?
Sensory Integrative Motor

27 Does this describe the autonomic or somatic nervous system?
Control the internal organs of the body operate without conscious control constant interplay of balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nerves


29 increases the release of glucose,
Does this describe the sympathetic nervous system or parasympathetic? Prepares the body for stress: increases heart rate, increases the release of glucose, dilates the pupils, increases blood flow to the skin, causes release of epinephrine sympathetic nervous system

30 parasympathetic nervous system Restores normal balance:
decreases heart rate, stores glucose, constricts pupils, decreases blood flow to the skin


32 Neuron Repair Neurilemma: Thin membrane that surrounds the axon
Promotes regeneration of damaged neurons Not in all nerve cells White Matter: Nerve cells in the brain that contain myelinated fibres and a neurilemma Grey Matter: Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that lack a myelin sheath and neurilemma Why are spinal and brain injuries often permanent?

33 How to Fix “Irreparable” Damage to the CNS
Reattach two torn nerves Limited success 2. Grafts from the PNS More successful…CNS cells that are left alone however, had no regeneration

34 Stem Cells Cells that have not specialized into tissue cells
Experiments are being done on replacing damaged cells using stem cells E.g. pp. 415…rats with reconnected spinal cords Page 417 # 1-6

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