Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Chapter 13 Lecture Outline* *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Brain and Cranial Nerves
Chapter 13 Brain and Cranial Nerves

3 Brain and Cranial Nerves
Part of CNS contained in cranial cavity Control center for many of body’s functions Much like a complex computer but more Parts of the brain Brainstem Cerebellum Diencephalon Cerebrum Cranial nerves Part of PNS arise directly from brain

4 Brainstem Connects spinal cord to brain Parts Medulla oblongata Pons

5 Brainstem Medulla oblongata or medulla Pons Midbrain
Regulates: Heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing, and sneezing Pyramids: Decussate Pons Sleep and respiratory center Midbrain Integral part of auditory pathways in CNS

6 Brainstem and Diencephalon

7 Cerebellum Involved in control of: balance, posture, locomotion, and fine motor coordination producing smooth flowing movements

8 Diencephalon Components
Thalamus, Subthalamus, Epithalamus, Hypothalamus

9 Diencephalon Hypothalamus Thalamus Functions Subthalamus Epithalamus
Largest part of diencephalon Most sensory input projects to here Influences mood and actions as fear or rage Subthalamus Involved in controlling motor functions Epithalamus Pineal gland may influence sleep-wake cycle Hypothalamus Functions ANS control Endocrine control Muscle control Temperature regulation Regulation of food and water intake Emotions Regulation of sleep-wake cycle

10 Cerebrum Largest portion of brain Divisions Cortex: Outer surface
Right Left Lobes: Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula Cortex: Outer surface Medulla: Center

11 Basal Nuclei and Limbic System
Motor function control Limbic system Basic survival functions as memory, reproduction, nutrition Emotions

12 Limbic System

13 Meninges Connective tissue membranes Dura mater: Superficial
Arachnoid mater Pia mater: Bound tightly to brain Spaces Subdural: Serous fluid Subarachnoid: CSF

14 Ventricles Ventricles: Lateral ventricles (2), third ventricle, fourth ventricle Choroid plexuses produce CSF which fills ventricles and other parts of brain and spinal cord Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: Substances do not pass between cells but through due to tight junctions of blood endothelial cells

15 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Similar to serum with most of proteins removed Bathes brain and spinal cord Provides a protective cushion around CNS Provides some nutrients to CNS tissues Produced by ependymal cells

16 Flow of CSF

17 Brain Blood Supply Brain Blood-Brain barrier
Requires tremendous amount of blood Receives 15-20% of blood pumped by heart Interruption can cause unconsciousness and irreversible brain damage High metabolic rate and dependence on constant supply of oxygen and glucose Receives blood through arteries Blood-Brain barrier Capillary endothelial cells along with astrocytes and basement membrane To be considered when developing drugs

18 Formation of the Neural Tube

19 Development of Brain Segments and Ventricles

20 Cranial Nerves Indicated by Roman numerals I-XII from anterior to posterior May have one or more of 3 functions Sensory (special or general) Somatic motor (skeletal muscles) Parasympathetic (regulation of glands, smooth muscles, cardiac muscle)

21 Cranial Nerves Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV) Trigeminal (V) Abducens (VI) Facial (VII) Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) Vagus (X) Accessory (XI) Hypoglossal (XII)

Download ppt "Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google