# The Periodic Table of Elements Not just a table, the key to matter!!!!!!!

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The Periodic Table of Elements Not just a table, the key to matter!!!!!!!

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The Wonders of the Periodic Table

Arranging the Elements Dmitri Mendeleev (1887), a Russian scientist, looked at the chemical and physical properties of elements and organized them on the basis of their similarities By arranging the 63 known elements, he found that by placing them by increasing atomic weight he could put them into 7 groups, or columns. He found the pattern, all the elements in a column have the same valences, the number of electrons in the outer shell

The Modern Periodic Table British scientist, Henry Mosley, arranged the elements according to their atomic number The Periodic Law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number

Design of the Periodic Table Classification system used to organize all the elements Information can be obtained about each element just by where it is placed in the periodic table!

Columns Called groups or families Have similar, but not identical properties

Rows Also called periods Elements are not alike in the rows First element in a row is an extremely active solid, where as the last is always an inactive gas There are 7 periods, with period 6 separated out to make the periodic table shorter Each of the rows fills the same electron orbits

Columns and Rows

Element Key, each element has their own…….

It is just the beginning!!!!

Let’s look at what we have…

Most of the 109 elements are classified as metals Physical properties : Luster or shininess Ductile means made into thin wires Malleable means hammered into thin sheets Allows heat and electricity to pass through Have a high density

Chemical Properties of Metals Depends on the number of electrons in the outer shell of the atom These outer shell electrons are weakly held and tend to be lost when they chemically combined Easily react with water and gases in the atmosphere Metals are corrosive, they wear away ex. rust and tarnish

Position of Elements

Nonmetals Physical properties are opposite of metals, they are dull, brittle, and break easily, they are not ductile or malleable, and they can be a solid, liquid, or a gas Chemical properties are determined by the number of electrons in their outer shell Last row has 8 electrons in their outer shell, so they are non reactive

Metalloids They have properties of both metals and nonmetals Metal-like They conduct heat and electricity, but not as well as metals Can be shiny or dull Are ductile and malleable Include; boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine

Chemical Families Elements within the same family on the periodic table have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons

Alkali Metals Group 1 Single electron in their outer shell Soft, silver-white, and shiny Can be cut with a knife Good conductors of heat and electricity So highly reactive they are never found free in nature Violent reaction in water

Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 They have 2 electrons in their outer shell Not quite as reactive as the alkali metals because they loose 2 electrons when combining chemically Never found free in nature because they are so reactive Calcium and magnesium are important part of this family

The Transition Metals Groups 3-12 They have two electrons in their outer shell except Cr, Cu, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Ag, PT, and Au have one. These share electrons when they combine chemically Conduct heat and electricity Many are familiar: gold, silver, zinc, iron, nickel, copper, and tin

Zinc

Boron Family Group 13 They have 3 valence electrons in their outer shell Boron is metalloid, while aluminum, and the rest of the family are metals Aluminum is the most abundant metal and the 3 rd most abundant element in the Earth’s crust Family includes; boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium

Carbon Family Group 14 Has 4 valence electrons in their outer shells Carbon is a nonmetal, silicon and germanium are metalloids Carbon makes over 5 million different compounds and is the “basis of life” Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth’ crust, important in computer chips Family includes carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead

Nitrogen Family Group 15 Have 5 valence electrons in their outer shells Tend to share electron when they chemically combined Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere Phosphorus is an active nonmetal that is not found free in nature Family includes: nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth

Oxygen Family Group 16 Have 6 valence electrons in their outer shell They share electrons when chemically combined Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and second most abundant element in the atmosphere Oxygen is an extremely reactive element and combines with almost all other elements Family members include; oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium

The Halogens Group 17 Have 7 valence electrons in their outer shell They are the most reactive nonmetals Never found free in nature They share or gain one electron when they chemically combined Halogen means salt formers and all compounds with halogens are called salts. Astatine is a metalloid Family members include: chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine

Noble Gases Group 18 They have 8 electrons in their outer shell, except helium which has 2, means they are normally un-reactive Also known as the inert gases Found in small amount is the Earth’s atmosphere, argon the most common Family members include; helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon

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Rare-Earth Elements These have properties that are similar to one another All have 2 valence electrons They have been moved to the bottom to make the periodic table easier to read First row is the lanthanide series, shiny, soft, malleable metals, that are conductive The second row is the actinide series, all are radioactive and only the first four are present in nature Elements numbered 92-118 are all synthetic and radioactive Uranium is the best known rare-earth metal

Periodic Properties of the Elements Certain properties of elements vary in regular ways from left to right across a period. These properties include electron arrangement, reactivity, atomic size, and metallic properties

Valence Electrons

Ionic Charges