3 Pure Substance A substance in which there is only one type of matter. The particles of a pure substance are alike no matter where they are found.Ex: Particles of iron in a skillet are the same as the iron particles found in a meteorite
4 ElementIs a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.It only has one type of atom.
5 CompoundsA pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined.Salt- Sodium & ChlorineWater- hydrogen & oxygenSugar- carbon, hydrogen& oxygenBaking soda- sodium,hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
6 Compounds aren't Random The elements that make up a compound join in a specific ratio according to their masses.Water2 atoms of hydrogen to 1 atom of oxygen (2:1 ratio)Each compound has its own set or identifying properties different from the elements that it is formed from.
8 MixtureIs a combination of two or more substance that are not chemically combined.The substance in a mixture retain their identity.Ex: pizza, salt water
9 Mixtures are Either:Homogeneous: Have the same appearance and properties throughout the mixtureEx: Solutions- milk, Kool-AidHeterogeneous : the different components are easily seen.Ex: suspensions- salad dressing, muddy water.
10 How do you separate a mixture? By:Physical separation (take topping off pizza)Distillation (based on boiling points)A magnet (certain metals)A centrifuge (separates by density)Filter (solid particles)Evaporation (sodium chloride & water)
11 Solutions Are mixtures that appear to be a single substance. Ex: Salt water, milkThey are still composed of two or more substance but they are distributed evenly amongst each other
12 Parts of a Solution Solute- The substance that is dissolved Ex: saltSolvent- The substance in which the solute is dissolved in.Ex: WaterSalt is soluble in waterWhen two liquids or gasses form a solution the substance of greater volume is the solvent.
13 Three factors that speed up dissolving: - temperature- stirring- particle size
14 More on Mixtures:Concentration: measures the amount of a solute dissolved in a solvent.Solutions can be described as being concentrated or diluted.Solubility: The amount of solute needed to make a saturated solution ( grams/ 100mL)Saturated: A solution that contains all the solute is can hold at a given temperature.Unsaturated: A solution that contains less solute then it can hold at a given temperature.
15 Types of Mixtures: They cannot be separated by Suspensions: A mixture in which particles or a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out.Colloids: A mixture in whichparticles are dispersed throughoutbut are not heavy enough to settle out.Ex: Milk, Jell-O, FogThey cannot be separated byfiltration the particles are too small
16 Mixtures Vs. Compounds Mixtures Compounds Components are elements, compounds, or both.Components are elements.Components keep their original properties.Components lose their original properties.Separated by physical means.Separated by chemical means.Formed using any ratio of componentsFormed using a set mass ratio of components.