2 Imagine this..It has been a long day of school, and you are extremely frustrated because all of your teachers, except you’re wonderful Biology teacher, have assigned you tons of homework. “I’m gonna have to pull an all-nighter,” you think.
3 Imagine this..You’re parents decides to make you dinner to help you get through the night. What should they cook?
8 Why do we learn Chemistry in Biology? Chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of Matter.Chemistry is related to Biology because all organisms are composed of chemical substances.
9 Ch. 2. Outline 2-1: Nature of Matter 2-2: Properties of Matter Atoms Elements and IsotopesChemical CompoundsChemical Bonds2-2: Properties of MatterWater MoleculeSolutions and SuspensionsAcids, Bases, and pH
10 Ch. 2. Outline 2-3: Carbon Compounds MacromoleculesCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic AcidsProteins2-4: Chemical Reactions and EnzymesChemical ReactionsEnergy in ReactionsEnzymesEnzyme Action
11 Section 1: Nature of Matter What are Atoms?The smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down chemicallyWhat composes Atoms?Protons – positively charged (p+) particles, found in the nucleusNeutrons – Particles with no charge (n0), found in the nucleusElectrons – negatively charged (e-), found in energy levels
12 History of the Atom Democritus – “Atomos Thomson Plum Pudding – “Plum pudding ModelRutherford model – Planetary structureBohr Model – Discrete orbitalsElectron Cloud Model – Electrons orbit with specific clouds and shapes.
14 Nature of Matter (con’t) What are elements?An element is a pure substance made up of only one kind of atom, represented by symbols, such as, H, O, N, C, etc.What is an isotope?Isotopes are atoms of an element that contain different numbers of neutronsCarbon-12, Carbon-13, and Carbon-14
15 Chemical BondingChemical Bonding describes the forces which joins atoms to form compounds.A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportionsThere are three types of bonds that you will learn about:Covalent BondsIonic BondsVan der Waals Forces
16 Chemical Bonding (con’t) When do covalent bonds form?Covalent bonds form when two or more atoms share electrons.A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bondsWhat is a polar molecule?A polar molecule has an unequal distribution of chargeI.e. H2O acts like a charge particle.
22 Water and Living Things About 70% of our body is water, both inside and outside of all of our cells.There are four major properties of water in biology:Storage of HeatCohesionSurface TensionAdhesion
23 Properties of WaterStorage of Heat – Water helps cells maintain homeostasis by controlling internal body temperature because it retains heatCohesion – An attraction between substances of the same kind, I.e. water to form dropsSurface tension – forms drops of water because of attraction, prevents surface from breaking easilyAdhesion – an action between different substances, I.e water to walls of plant tube to cause capillary action.
24 Solutions and Suspensions Water is not always pure—it is often found as part of a mixtureMixture – a material composed of two or more elements that are physically combined not chemically combined.Example: The Atmosphere, Your body, Water.
25 Solution and Suspensions A solution is when a chemical change occurs that breaks apart bonds, usually in water.Salt and WaterTwo parts of a solutionSolute – the substance that is dissolvedSolvent – the substance that does the dissolvingWater is an excellent solvent because of it’s polar bonds.
26 Aqueous SolutionsAn aqueous solution is a mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in water or blood to be delivered in the bodyThere are two main properties of solution:PolaritypH
27 Properties of Solutions Polarity – Water is the universal solvent due to the fact that it is a polar substance. The polarity of water helps break apart bonds, especially ionic bonds. Nonpolar molecules, such as those found in oils, do not “mix” or dissolve in water.
29 Properties of Solutions (con’t) The Acidity of solutions is a very important property in biology.Acidity is measured using the pH scalepH measure the amount of H+ ions in a solutionWhat would pOH measure?Acids are solutions that range from 0 to 7 on the pH scale. They form hydrogren ions when dissolved in waterBases are solutions that range from 7 to 14 on the pH scale. They form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
30 pH ScaleWhat are some acids and bases found in your body?
31 Section 3: Chemistry of Cells As we go further into Biology, we will learn about cells and cell functions. An important aspect of biological cells are Carbon Compounds.Carbon Compounds are made up of building blocks called Monomers.Many monomers together are called a polymer
32 Carbon Compounds There are 4 main organic compounds found in the body: CarbohydratesLipidsProteinNucleic AcidsName an example of each.
33 Carbon Compounds (con’t) CarbohydratesContains C,H, O with a 1:2:1 ratio.Quick Source of energy, “carbo loading”Basic monomers are monosaccharidesGlucose, Fructose, Galactose, etc.Two monosaccharides form a disaccharideSucrose, more commonly known as Table SugarMany monosaccharides come together and make PolysaccharidesStarch – plantsGlycogen – animalsCellulose in plants’ cell walls
35 Carbon Compounds (con’t) LipidsAlso contains C, H, O, in no specific ratioInclude fats, oils, waxes, and steroidsImportant in the structure and function of cell membrane, and light absorbing compounds called pigmentsA long-term store for energyMonomers are one glycerol and three fatty acids, called a triglyceride
36 Carbon Compounds (con’t) Saturated fats: all the C atoms in the fatty acids are bonded to two Hydrogen atoms forming a straight chain.Will they be solid or liquid at Room Temperature?Unsaturated fats: some of the C atoms are linked by a double covalent bond with only one hydrogen atoms which forms kinks in the chain.
37 Carbon Compounds (con’t) ProteinsLarge macromolecules formed from monomers called amino acidsGenerally fold into compact shapes on interaction with waterMany important functions in the body:CollagenHemoglobinAntibodies – aid immune systemActin & MyosinEnzymes – catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy
39 Activation Energy Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction ProductsActivation energyActivationenergyReactants
40 Enzyme and Substrate Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products GlucoseSubstratesATPbind toenzymeare convertedinto productsEnzyme-substratecomplexEnzyme(hexokinase)ADPProductsGlucose-6-phosphateare releasedActive site
41 Carbon Compounds Nucleic Acids Found in every cell Made up of monomers called NucleotidesDNADeoxyribonucleic AcidRNARibonucleic AcidATPAdenosine TriphosphateA high-energy storing molecule recycled in cells