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Chemistry of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry of Life

2 Imagine this.. It has been a long day of school, and you are extremely frustrated because all of your teachers, except you’re wonderful Biology teacher, have assigned you tons of homework. “I’m gonna have to pull an all-nighter,” you think.

3 Imagine this.. You’re parents decides to make you dinner to help you get through the night. What should they cook?

4 Concept Map

5 Concept Map

6 Concept Map

7 Concept Map Carbon Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids
include Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins that consist of that consist of that consist of that consist of Sugars and starches Fats and oils Nucleotides Amino Acids which contain which contain which contain which contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen,

8 Why do we learn Chemistry in Biology?
Chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of Matter. Chemistry is related to Biology because all organisms are composed of chemical substances.

9 Ch. 2. Outline 2-1: Nature of Matter 2-2: Properties of Matter Atoms
Elements and Isotopes Chemical Compounds Chemical Bonds 2-2: Properties of Matter Water Molecule Solutions and Suspensions Acids, Bases, and pH

10 Ch. 2. Outline 2-3: Carbon Compounds
Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids Proteins 2-4: Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Chemical Reactions Energy in Reactions Enzymes Enzyme Action

11 Section 1: Nature of Matter
What are Atoms? The smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down chemically What composes Atoms? Protons – positively charged (p+) particles, found in the nucleus Neutrons – Particles with no charge (n0), found in the nucleus Electrons – negatively charged (e-), found in energy levels

12 History of the Atom Democritus – “Atomos
Thomson Plum Pudding – “Plum pudding Model Rutherford model – Planetary structure Bohr Model – Discrete orbitals Electron Cloud Model – Electrons orbit with specific clouds and shapes.

13 The Atom

14 Nature of Matter (con’t)
What are elements? An element is a pure substance made up of only one kind of atom, represented by symbols, such as, H, O, N, C, etc. What is an isotope? Isotopes are atoms of an element that contain different numbers of neutrons Carbon-12, Carbon-13, and Carbon-14

15 Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonding describes the forces which joins atoms to form compounds. A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions There are three types of bonds that you will learn about: Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Van der Waals Forces

16 Chemical Bonding (con’t)
When do covalent bonds form? Covalent bonds form when two or more atoms share electrons. A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds What is a polar molecule? A polar molecule has an unequal distribution of charge I.e. H2O acts like a charge particle.

17 Covalent Bonds

18 Chemical bonding (con’t)
Van der Waals force or Hydrogen Bonding is a weak chemical attraction between polar molecules

19 Chemical Bonding (con’t)
What is an Ion? An atom or molecule that has gained or loss one or more electrons. How is an Ionic Bond formed? When two or more ions of opposite charge are held together

20 Ionic Bonds Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) Sodium ion (Na+)
Chloride ion (Cl-) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge

21 Ionic Bonds

22 Water and Living Things
About 70% of our body is water, both inside and outside of all of our cells. There are four major properties of water in biology: Storage of Heat Cohesion Surface Tension Adhesion

23 Properties of Water Storage of Heat – Water helps cells maintain homeostasis by controlling internal body temperature because it retains heat Cohesion – An attraction between substances of the same kind, I.e. water to form drops Surface tension – forms drops of water because of attraction, prevents surface from breaking easily Adhesion – an action between different substances, I.e water to walls of plant tube to cause capillary action.

24 Solutions and Suspensions
Water is not always pure—it is often found as part of a mixture Mixture – a material composed of two or more elements that are physically combined not chemically combined. Example: The Atmosphere, Your body, Water.

25 Solution and Suspensions
A solution is when a chemical change occurs that breaks apart bonds, usually in water. Salt and Water Two parts of a solution Solute – the substance that is dissolved Solvent – the substance that does the dissolving Water is an excellent solvent because of it’s polar bonds.

26 Aqueous Solutions An aqueous solution is a mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in water or blood to be delivered in the body There are two main properties of solution: Polarity pH

27 Properties of Solutions
Polarity – Water is the universal solvent due to the fact that it is a polar substance. The polarity of water helps break apart bonds, especially ionic bonds. Nonpolar molecules, such as those found in oils, do not “mix” or dissolve in water.

28 Polarity of Water

29 Properties of Solutions (con’t)
The Acidity of solutions is a very important property in biology. Acidity is measured using the pH scale pH measure the amount of H+ ions in a solution What would pOH measure? Acids are solutions that range from 0 to 7 on the pH scale. They form hydrogren ions when dissolved in water Bases are solutions that range from 7 to 14 on the pH scale. They form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

30 pH Scale What are some acids and bases found in your body?

31 Section 3: Chemistry of Cells
As we go further into Biology, we will learn about cells and cell functions. An important aspect of biological cells are Carbon Compounds. Carbon Compounds are made up of building blocks called Monomers. Many monomers together are called a polymer

32 Carbon Compounds There are 4 main organic compounds found in the body:
Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Nucleic Acids Name an example of each.

33 Carbon Compounds (con’t)
Carbohydrates Contains C,H, O with a 1:2:1 ratio. Quick Source of energy, “carbo loading” Basic monomers are monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, etc. Two monosaccharides form a disaccharide Sucrose, more commonly known as Table Sugar Many monosaccharides come together and make Polysaccharides Starch – plants Glycogen – animals Cellulose in plants’ cell walls

34 Carbohydrates

35 Carbon Compounds (con’t)
Lipids Also contains C, H, O, in no specific ratio Include fats, oils, waxes, and steroids Important in the structure and function of cell membrane, and light absorbing compounds called pigments A long-term store for energy Monomers are one glycerol and three fatty acids, called a triglyceride

36 Carbon Compounds (con’t)
Saturated fats: all the C atoms in the fatty acids are bonded to two Hydrogen atoms forming a straight chain. Will they be solid or liquid at Room Temperature? Unsaturated fats: some of the C atoms are linked by a double covalent bond with only one hydrogen atoms which forms kinks in the chain.

37 Carbon Compounds (con’t)
Proteins Large macromolecules formed from monomers called amino acids Generally fold into compact shapes on interaction with water Many important functions in the body: Collagen Hemoglobin Antibodies – aid immune system Actin & Myosin Enzymes – catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy

38 Hemoglobin and Actin/Myosin Complex

39 Activation Energy Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction
Products Activation energy Activation energy Reactants

40 Enzyme and Substrate Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products
Glucose Substrates ATP bind to enzyme are converted into products Enzyme-substrate complex Enzyme (hexokinase) ADP Products Glucose-6- phosphate are released Active site

41 Carbon Compounds Nucleic Acids Found in every cell
Made up of monomers called Nucleotides DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Ribonucleic Acid ATP Adenosine Triphosphate A high-energy storing molecule recycled in cells

42 DNA Structure

43 End of Organic Compounds

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