4 Why do people write?To try and explain why people act the way that they do
5 Setting The time and location in which a story takes place Place: geographical locationTime: When is the story taking place?Historical PeriodTime of DayTime of Year
6 Plot How the author arranges events to develop the basic idea The sequence of events in a story or playIntroduction/ExpositionRising ActionClimaxFalling ActionConclusion/Denouement
7 Five Essential elements of Plot Introduction (Exposition): the beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealedRising Action: the events of the story become complicated and the conflict of the story is revealedEvents between introduction and climax
8 Five Essential Elements of Plot Climax: the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story.What will happen next?Will the conflict be resolved or not?Falling Action: the events and issues in the story begin to resolve themselvesWas the conflict resolved?Events between climax and denouement
9 Five Essential Elements of Plot Resolution (Denouement): Final outcome or untangling of events in the storyFrench word for “untying”
11 ConflictA situation or problem that a character has to try and resolveA constant, ongoing struggle that the main character is trying to find a solution toTwo Types:InternalExternal
12 Conflict Two Types of Conflict: External: a struggle with a force outside the characterInternal: a struggle within a character; a character has to make a decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc.
13 Types of Conflict: External Man vs. Man: the main character struggles with another characterGood guy vs. bad guyMan vs. Circumstances: the main character struggles against fate or the circumstances of life facing him/herHamlet
14 Types of conflict: External Man vs. Society: the main character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs in their societyMan vs. Nature: the main character struggles against nature, a natural disaster, or animalsA struggle to survive
15 Internal ConflictMan vs. Himself: the main character’s struggle takes place in his/her own mind. Usually has something to do with a choice (choosing between right and wrong), or it may have to do with overcoming emotions or mixed feelings
16 Character Character: the people in a work of fiction Character Development: the change in the person from the beginning to the end of the storyCharacterization: the way a person looks, talks, acts, or thinks
17 CharacterProtagonist: main character of the story who is faced with a conflictUsually the “hero” or good guyAntagonist: person who goes against the main character who may contribute to the conflictUsually the “villain” or bad guy
18 Point of view First Person Point of View One of the characters in the story is telling the story through their perspective, or through their own eyesWhen reading stories written in first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is saying is based on their own personal feelings
19 Point of view Third Person Omniscient Point of View The narrator is not a character in the storyThe narrator is an outside voice that lets us know exactly how the characters feel.We learn about the characters through this outside voice.
20 Point of View Objective Point of View The writer tells what happens without stating more than can be inferred from the story's action and dialogue.The narrator never tells anything about what the characters think or feel, remaining a detached observer.
21 Theme Controlling idea in a piece of fiction or its central insight The author’s underlying meaningMain idea the author is trying to explainThe theme may be an author’s thoughts about a topic or view of human natureExamples of Common Themes from Literature, TV, and Film:Things are not always what they appear to beLove is blindBelieve in yourselfEvil exists in the world
22 Irony When the opposite of what you expect to happen takes place Verbal Irony: when someone says one thing, but really means anotherKind of like sarcasm
23 SymbolPerson, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itselfExample: heart stands for the actual organ and for love
24 FlashbackA scene in a story that interrupts the present action of the plot to flash backwards and tell what happened at an earlier time
25 Flash-ForwardA scene in a story that interrupts the present action of the plot and goes into the future