2 Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge True or False: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues food regulations that must be followed by each establishmentTrue or False: Health inspectors are employees of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)True or False: You should ask to accompany the health inspector during the inspection of your establishmentTrue or False: Critical violations noted during a health inspection usually must be corrected within one week of the inspectionTrue or False: Establishments can be closed by the health department if they find a significant lack of refrigerationInstructor NotesAnswers:FalseTrue14-2
3 U.S. Regulatory System for Food Government control of food is exercised at three levels:FederalU.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)Food and Drug Administration (FDA)StateState health departmentsLocalCity or county health departments
4 U.S. Regulatory System for Food: The USDA The USDA is responsible for inspection and quality grading of:Meat and meat productsPoultryDairy productsEggs and egg productsFruit and vegetables shipped across state linesInstructor NotesThe USDA provides these services through the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) agency.
5 U.S. Regulatory System for Food: The FDA Issues the FDA Food Code jointly with the USDA and CDCInspectsFoodservice operations that cross state borders (planes, trains, etc.)Food manufacturers and processorsEnsures food processing plants meet standards of purity, wholesomeness, and labeling requirementsInstructor NotesThe FDA inspects foodservice operations that cross state borders because they overlap the jurisdictions of two or more states.The FDA shares responsibility with the USDA for inspecting food-processing plants.
6 U.S. Regulatory System for Food: State and Local State and Local ControlMost food regulations are written at the state levelEach state decides whether to adopt the FDA Food Code or some modified form of itState regulations may be enforced by state or local (city or county) health departmentsHealth inspectors from city, county, or state health departments conduct foodservice inspections in most statesInstructor NotesRegulations for interstate or international establishments are written at the federal level.Health inspectors generally are trained in food safety, sanitation, and public health principles.
7 The Inspection Process Foodservice InspectionsAre required for all establishmentsLet the establishment know how well it is following critical food safety practicesTypes of InspectionsTraditional inspectionsHACCP-based inspections
8 The Inspection Process: Steps Steps in the Inspection Process:1. Ask the inspector for identification2. CooperateAccompany the inspectorAnswer all questionsInstruct employees to cooperateCorrect deficiencies quickly if possible3. Take notesMake note of deficiencies pointed outIf you question the inspector’s accuracy contact his or her supervisorInstructor NotesDo not let anyone enter the back of the facility without proper identification. Clarify the purpose of the visit. Make sure you know whether it is a routine inspection, the result of a customer complaint, or for some other purpose.Answer all of the inspector’s questions to the best of your ability. Instruct employees to do the same. Explain to the inspector that you wish to accompany him or her during the inspection. This will encourage open communication and a good working relationship. If a deficiency can be corrected quickly, do so or tell the inspector when it can be corrected.As you accompany the inspector, make a note of any problems pointed out. Taking notes will help you remember exactly what was said. Make it clear you are willing to correct any problems. If you believe the inspector is incorrect about something, note what was mentioned. Then ask the inspector’s supervisor for a second opinion.
9 The Inspection Process: Steps Steps in the Inspection Process: continued4. Keep the relationship professional5. Be prepared to provide recordsThese will become part of the public recordIf a request appears inappropriate, contact legal counsel or the inspector’s supervisorInstructor NotesInspectors might ask for purchase records to verify food has been received from an approved source, records of pest control treatments, or a list of all chemicals used in the facility. HACCP records could be requested in some cases. In fact, HACCP records very well could be an important part of an inspection because they document the establishment’s efforts to ensure food safety.
10 The Inspection Process: Steps Steps in the Inspection Process: continued6. Discuss violations and time frames for correction with the inspectorStudy the inspection report carefullyDiscuss deficiencies in detail with the inspector. Make sure you understand:The exact nature of the violationHow it impacts food safetyHow to correct itIf the inspector will follow upKeep the inspection report on fileInstructor NotesAfter the inspection, the inspector will discuss the results and the score (if a score is given) and arrange for any follow-up if necessary. The inspection report should be studied closely. Deficiencies and comments should be discussed in detail with the inspector. In order to make complete and permanent corrections, you will need to know the exact nature of the violation, how it impacts food safety, how to correct it, and whether or not the inspector will follow-up. The inspector sees many operations and may offer expert advice on how to correct deficiencies.You will be asked to sign the inspection report to acknowledge you have received it. Follow your company’s policy regarding the issue. A copy of the report is then given to you or the person in charge at the time of the inspection. Copies of all reports should be kept on file in the establishment and referred to when planning improvements and assessing facility goals.Copies of reports are also kept on file at the health department. They are considered public documents and be made available to the public upon request.
11 The Inspection Process: Steps Steps in the Inspection Process: continued7. Follow upAct on all deficiencies notedCorrect critical deficiencies within 48 hours or when indicatedCorrect other deficiencies as soon as possibleDetermine why deficiencies occurredEvaluate SOPs, the master cleaning schedule, trainingEstablish new procedures, or revise existing onesInstructor NotesAll deficiencies noted on the inspection report must be acted upon. Keep the report with you as you correct problems.
12 Closure An inspector may close an establishment when there is: A significant lack of refrigerationA backup of sewage into the establishmentAn emergency, such as a fire or floodA significant pest infestationA long interruption of electrical or water serviceClear evidence of a foodborne illness outbreak related to the establishmentInstructor NotesIn some states, if the inspector determines a facility poses an immediate and substantial health hazard to the public, he or she may ask for a voluntary closure or issue an immediate suspension of the permit to operate.
13 Self-Inspections Well-managed establishments: Perform continuous self-inspectionsConsider regular inspections only a supplement to self-inspectionsThe benefits of self-inspections:Safer foodImproved food qualityHigher inspection scoresA cleaner environment for customers
14 The FDA Food Code The FDA Food Code Outlines federal recommendations for food safety regulations for the foodservice industryBased on input from the Conference for Food Protection (CFP)Although FDA recommends adoption by each state, it cannot require itInstructor NotesA big part of your job is keeping food safe. So you must understand the rules and regulations that impact food safety. It is also helpful to know who makes these rules and who enforces them.The ServSafe program is based on the FDA Food Code, science, and best practices in the industry.CFP representatives come from the food industry, government, academia, and consumer groups.
15 FDA Risk Designations Risk Designations for Evaluating Establishments Priority itemsPrevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards (e.g., handwashing)Priority foundation itemsSupport priority items (e.g., soap at a handwashing station)Core itemsRelate to general sanitation and maintenance, (e.g., keeping equipment repaired)Instructor NotesThe FDA recommends that regulatory authorities use the following three risk designations when evaluating establishments. These replace the “critical” and “noncritical” risk designations recommended previously.Priority itemsPriority foundation itemsCore itemsPriority items are the most critical. These are actions and procedures that prevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards associated with foodborne illness to an acceptable level. Proper handwashing would be considered a priority item.Priority foundation items are those that support a priority item. Having soap at a handwashing sink is an example.Core items relate to general sanitation, the facility, equipment design, and general maintenance. Keeping equipment in good repair is an example.