5 TopographyThe Northern European Plain is a flat area that extends from France through the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, and into Russia. The Northern European Plain has very good soil called chernozem.
6 Peninsulas Europe has five major peninsulas: Scandinavian Peninsula JutlandIberian PeninsulaItalian PeninsulaBalkan Peninsula
7 Scandinavian Peninsula The Scandinavian Peninsula is in Northern Europe. Norway, Sweden, and part of Finland are on the Scandinavian Peninsula. The peninsula is surrounded by the Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea, and North Sea.
18 Strategic WaterwaysA strategic waterway is a narrow body of water on an important transportation route or sea lane. Some examples are:The English ChannelThe Strait of GibraltarThe Dardanelles and Bosporus
19 The English ChannelThe English Channel separates the island of Great Britain from France. The narrowest point is the Strait of Dover, which is 21 miles wide.
24 Interesting FactsMatthew Webb is the first known person to swim the channel from Dover to Calais. It took him 21 hours and 45 minutes.In 1979, Bryan Allen crossed the Channel in a human powered aircraft. Yea, that is right, he pedaled for three hours in order to fly.
25 Strait of GibraltarThe Strait of Gibraltar connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The strait also separates the continents of Europe and Africa. At the strait’s narrowest point it is eight miles wide.
27 GibraltarThe Rock of Gibraltar or Gibraltar is actually an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. It has been part of the U.K. for 300 years.
28 The only wild monkeys in Europe live on the Rock of Gibraltar.
29 The Bosporus and Dardanelles The Bosporus and Dardanelles separate Europe from Asia Minor (Turkey). Part of Turkey is in Europe and the other part is located in Asia.
30 Islands Some islands in Northern Europe are: Great Britain Ireland IcelandGreat Britain and Ireland are the two major islands in an archipelago. Together they are called the British Isles.
31 Great BritainGreat Britain is the name of an island. The United Kingdom refers to a country that is located on Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom is composed of:WalesScotlandEnglandNorthern Ireland
32 Islands Some islands in the Mediterranean Sea are: Sicily Corsica SardiniaCrete
33 MountainsThe Alps are located in Northern Italy, Switzerland, Austria, and France. The Alps are not very long and the tallest mountain is Mont Blanc (15,774ft).
35 Climate and Vegetation Europe is in the middle and high latitudes, therefore, Europe has many different types of climates.In Northern Europe there is Tundra and Sub-arctic climates.Most of Western Europe has a Marine West Coast climate zone.Southern Europe has a Mediterranean climate.
36 ClimateWind currents and ocean currents have a large impact on the climate of Europe.A. The North Atlantic Drift is an ocean current that warms Europe.B. Europe is also warmed by wind currents called the Westerlies.