1 Universal Access/SDAIE Session 2: Lesson Design Template Secondary Title III Access to Core Professional DevelopmentOffice of Curriculum, Instruction, and School SupportLanguage Acquisition BranchWelcome participants & introduce yourself.
2 Long Range GoalsAchieve consistency and continuity in our understanding of SDAIE and how we communicate it to all stakeholders.Use of SDAIE to provide access to core curriculum for English learners.Build a Culturally Relevant and Responsive (CRRE) learning environment incorporating the different ways our students learn, behave, and use communicative language patterns.Fly in each objective.Say:In Session 1 we looked at the definition of SDAIE as a methodology that is designed to make content accessible and instruction comprehensible for English learnersWe spent the bulk of the time going over the components of the 4 critical elements of SDAIE. (Quickly elicit the names of the 4 critical elements from participants)In Session 2 we will continue to expand our understanding of sheltered instruction by analyzing a tool for lesson design/ lesson study that supports/facilitates universal access for our ELs.2
3 ObjectivesLearn the components of the Universal Access/SDAIE Lesson Design Template.2. Look at a sample lesson to identify the four critical elements of SDAIE.Say:In this session we will analyze a tool for lesson design that supports/facilitates universal access for our ELs.We will use a sample lesson to illustrate the components of the template.3
4 SDAIE: Four Critical Elements Sort Use the cards on your table to “build” a group Tree MapFirst line up the names of the Four Critical Elements of SDAIE, then classify the rest of the cards under the correct categoryFour Critical ElementsSay:As it is customary in all our presentations, we include an activity that you can replicate in the classroom.In this sorting activity, you will use a Tree Map to activate your prior knowledge of the 4 critical elements of SDAIE as well as their essential features.By activating your prior knowledge, we are using the critical element of Connections.We will continue to discuss those elements and features as we go through the lesson template and the sample lesson.Read directions for activity.
5 - Pass out the handout and use to check answers. - Have a short debrief by asking if there are any questions regarding the placement of essential features corresponding to each element.Possible question to be utilized to generate talking points:Why is the bullet - “ask many and varied questions” under Interaction and not under Comprehensibility?When we look at the area of Comprehensibility, the components are specifically targeting teacher’s behavior to enhance understanding.The bullet certainly applies to Comprehensibility as a strategy for checking students’ understanding. It falls under the umbrella of frequent checks for comprehension.It was placed under Interaction because it is a strategy that applies to both teacher-student and student-student interactions. It is an important scaffold during interactions.5
6 Universal Access/SDAIE Lesson Design Template Say:Now that we reviewed the four critical elements of SDAIE, it is time to get familiarized with the template and how it is used for lesson design/ study
7 Think-Pair-ShareWhat are the steps that must be included in a well-designed lesson plan for any content area?Group Discussion.Whole Group share.Teachers should draw from their knowledge of lesson plans they have or are using, e.g. seven step lesson plan, understanding by design, etc.Suggestions:Vocabularygrade-level standardsMotivationGuided practice
8 Say:The Universal Access lesson design template shares similarities with the 5-step lesson plan that you are probably familiar with. However, this particular template is designed with language development in mind.In designing this template we looked at the research available in the area of sheltered instruction and language development and what would best facilitate the lesson design and implementation of SDAIE.The work of Chamot and O’Malley and Echevarria and Short was an important resource to ensure we were aligned with the research. If you are familiar with CALLA’s and SIOP’s lesson templates, you will recognize commonalities, although labels might be different.
9 The “What” Say: The lesson design template is divided into two parts- The “What” focuses on the Content. That is to say, what will be taught.9
10 The “How”Say:The “How” focuses on the other three elements– Connections, Comprehensibility, and Interactions, that is to say, how the Content will be taught.
11 Say:This section helps teachers think carefully about the content to be taught by not only identifying the standards that will be targeted, but, most importantly, by defining the big idea/concept we want students to acquire through the unit of study. The reason why we need to determine a main concept or big idea is that a single standard might encompass several concepts that may require more than one lesson.Depending on the content area, standards are organized in different ways. In addition, some of the frameworks, for example in Social Studies, call for specific skills standards as well. The template allows for the different approaches to standards depending on the curricular area. There is a line for main and focus standards as well as skills where applicable. (Show animation of sample standards for various curricular areas)In Language Arts, there is no main standard per se, but a broad title. The focus standard is the critical target of instruction.In Mathematics, the main standard is a very broad general statement, while the focus standards are organized by a number system (Ex: 1.2).In Science, the main standard is a very broad, general statement, while the focus standards under it are organized in alphabetical order.The Social Studies slide illustrates what we discussed previously– skills are listed in addition to content.This is true across grade levels.11
12 Say:The Content Objective describes specifically what students will learn in THIS lesson. A lesson might take several days to complete.The Language Objective is key to plan for universal access for ELs since it requires teachers to look at the linguistic demands of the subject area as well as that of the task students must complete to demonstrate knowledge of the concept being taught.If you remember the KWL activity from Session 1, we discussed the language needed to successfully participate in it, e.g., be able to pose questions, hypothesize, state facts, etc. as an illustration of activities we routinely use in the classroom without taking into consideration the language skill it demands. The activity illustrated the need for a language objective in order to bring language to the foreground and make it part of lesson planning.Concrete Materials- materials needed to make the lesson comprehensible. What will be some materials that you could list here?12
13 Say:Please notice that the SDAIE Vocabulary is limited to 10 words because we want the students to be able to appropriate this vocabulary.Brain research shows that there is a maximum number of items the brain can retain. Limiting the number of words increases the likelihood of vocabulary attainment.In this section it is crucial to identify those words that will serve the students across curricular areas as well as specific content words that are critical to accessing the contentYou might introduce other words during the lesson but they will not necessarily be expected to be acquired. Targeted words, on the other hand, will be used in different ways through the lesson so the students will have multiple opportunities to acquire them.Using words multiple times and in a variety of contexts is critical for acquisition, because research in vocabulary shows that students need multiple exposures to words before they are able to recall and use them.Deciding which words to choose will become clearer as we share the model lesson.
14 Say:We are now going to examine the How- How the content will be delivered.In order to set the stage appropriately, we must activate prior knowledge in the form of both prior personal experiences and prior content knowledge acquired. Both need to be related to the new knowledge to be presented.The Input and Model section is crucial to student success. When the teacher provides well-structured, comprehensive input and modeling, students are more confident during the guided and independent practice.What do you think is the difference between Independent Practice and Individual Practice?In SDAIE lesson design, independent practice, doe not necessarily mean individual practice but rather it can involve collaborative group activities that promote negotiation of meaning as students complete the task.Independent Practice in SDAIE terms refers to the lessening of the scaffolds teacher needs to provide for students to complete the task.
15 SDAIE Planning the “WHAT” Grade 7: Social Studies LessonSay:It is now time to examine a sample lesson.
16 SDAIE Element: Content History/ Social Science: Model Lesson 2 Say:For the purposes of this training, we will be examining a 7th grade Model lesson in the area of Social Studies. This lesson is part of a unit on the civilizations of Medieval Africa in the SS Instructional Guide.The purpose of examining this model lesson is to identify the elements of the content as well as to fill in the elements of SDAIE not present in the original model lesson.This is the Lesson Overview extracted from the Instructional Guide.(As you discuss the slide, call the participants’ attention to the GRAPES chart and explain that students complete a GRAPES chart for every civilization that they study)(Also, explain that, in 7th and 8th grade, the culminating task is an expository paragraph in response to a prompt)History/ Social Science: Model Lesson 2
17 For that, we need to use our design template. 7Social StudiesSay:Our objective is not to plan a new lesson but; it is to examine what we already have and determine what must be infused into the lesson to increase student access to the content and scaffold instruction so that students can complete the culminating task.For that, we need to use our design template.17
18 SDAIE Element: Content 7Social StudiesSay:First, we must analyze the Social Studies standards and frameworks to identify the big idea/main concept of the unit we will be teaching.This is important in SDAIE, because it helps us focus on what is essential in order to arrive at the understanding of the concept.Let’s take a look at the Social Studies Framework.18
19 SDAIE Element: Content “ Students should analyze the importance of an iron technology and of geographic location and trade in the development of the sub-Saharan empires of Ghana and Mali. Both became states of great wealth- Ghana, by controlling the trade in gold from the south; and Mali, by controlling both the southern trade in gold and the northern trade in salt. Students should also understand that slavery existed in these kingdoms and was part of the western African economy at the time. Both kingdoms exercised commercial, cultural and political power over a large part of Africa.- Social Studies Framework, Excerpt from World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Timesp. 88Say:I will now read to you a section from the Social Studies Framework. (Read out loud)In the yellow insert, we can see the Focus Standard. (Read it out loud)Groups discuss at their tables:What is the connection between the Framework and the focus standard?How does it help arrive at the big idea/main concept?What is the Big idea/main concept you can identify in this paragraph?(Groups will share out after a 5-7 minute discussion)(Show the highlighted statement as the key concept based on the Framework)Focus Standard7.4.1 – Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest, savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth of the Ghana and Mali empires.
20 SDAIE Element: Content “Chronology defines relationships in time, and students should learn how major events relate to each other in time so that the past is comprehensible, rather than a chaotic jumble of disconnected occurrences.” p.13(Read the main concept, make sure to point out the acronym used)Say:In this case, we can see that the focus standards gives us specific direction as to the big idea or main concept in this unit.The Main standard is broad but expands on the framework by asking students to analyze the various structures of the two African empires.Point out that the Big Idea came directly from the Model Lesson but that might not be the case with other materials they are using.Now that we know what the Big Idea is for the unit we have to make some decisions. Do we teach both empires together or separately? If we decide to teach both empires together, what would that entail- comparing and contrasting? (Have audience give ideas )Point out that in the Model Lesson the students are asked to examine both civilizations simultaneously. Why would that be problematic for Els?1) Ghana occupied the same geographical region as Mali but at an earlier time period. This my be confusing to Els.2) The task call for in the lesson plan and the reading selections are very challenging. Els might be overwhelm by having to deal with not only making sense of the readings but at the same time having to compare the two civilizations.
21 SDAIE Element: Content “Chronology defines relationships in time, and students should learn how major events relate to each other in time so that the past is comprehensible, rather than a chaotic jumble of disconnected occurrences.” p.13Continued from previous slideWhen we read the SDAIE elements, one of the components in Comprehensibility is the idea of building on previous concepts. The Social Studies framework also makes this recommendation (show animation).We also read in the SDAIE document that, in planning for instruction we should avoid that which may “distract, confuse or overwhelm” the students. Therefore, our approach should be to teach about Ghana’s structures first since it developed prior to Mali. We want to follow the chronological order to avoid confusing the students.Additionally, the reading will be facilitated since it will focus on one civilization at a time.What is the implication? Before using their materials and textbooks in a unit of study, teachers need to make decisions as to how and when they will use them based on the needs of their Els and what scaffolds are needed to make the content comprehensible and accessible.
22 SDAIE Sample Lesson Read on your own Handout: K-12 Universal Access/SDAIE Lesson Design TemplateSay:I am now going to give you some time to read the lesson plan on your own.
23 SDAIE Element: Content Say:In this slide, we can see the content objective for this lesson.What is it based on? (The big idea or main concept)Look at the acronym in the big idea.GRAPES. Geography, religion, achievements, political structures, economy, and social structures.Those are the elements that students need to analyze in order to complete the summary.At the end of this lesson, students will have categorized the information learned into the elements of the GRAPES.Ask, Why do you think that in our lesson design we call for a summary instead of an expository piece?(Because the summary is a good scaffold to help students complete the culminating task successfully.)Think of a student in ESL Intermediate.Do you think that this student will be able to write an expository paragraph on demand?The student will need scaffolds prior to the writing task. The summary can serve that purpose.
24 SDAIE Element: Content Say:In this slide, we can see the Language Objective for this lesson.What is it based on?In order to answer that question let’s examine the language of the standard once more.24
25 SDAIE Element: Content - Main Standard7.4 Students analyze the geographical, political, economic, religiousand social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghanaand Mali in Medieval Africa.- Focus Standard(s)7.4.1 Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones offorest, savannah and desert to trade in gold, salt, food andslaves; and the growth of the Ghana and MaliSay:Let’s refer once more to the standards for this model lesson to deepen our understanding of the complexity of the language for the task.As we can see, the standards ask for students to analyze the various structures, including the relationship of trade to the growth of Ghana.As stated in the Content Objective, students will demonstrate their understanding by summarizing the key characteristics of the empire after classifying/categorizing as a way to analyze the information.The language objective is based on the standard.
26 SDAIE Element: Content Say:Based on the language call for by task, we need to anticipate the kind of language forms that students will need to successfully complete the task.The task calls for categorizing/ classifying.What language forms would students need to discuss categorizing and classifying when speaking to one another? (Fly in yellow box)Based on the knowledge we have of the students in our class and their level of production in English, we also need to anticipate the language forms that will be expected from an ESLEarly Intermediate student. (Uncover text in red)I categorized _____ under _____I classified _____ as _____
27 SDAIE Element: Content Say:These are the concrete materials that will be needed for this lesson. Notice the highlighted words. These were the materials listed in the Model Lesson. As you can see, additional ones have been added.What was the criteria for the choices of materials? ComprehensibilityThe original Model lesson used the standards and skills to guide the choices for the use of primary and secondary sources . (Show animation)Let’s look at the skills the students will develop in this lesson.For Chronological and Spatial Thinking, students will use maps and documents to draw conclusions and justify their answers.For Research, Evidence, and Point of View, students will review primary and secondary sources to verify information.We added additional pictures, timeline, and materials for additional strategies that will help Els access the reading selections.NOTE: If necessary, define primary and secondary sources.
28 SDAIE Element: Content Say:Let’s now examine the SDAIE vocabulary.In choosing SDAIE vocabulary, we look at the standards and analyze the texts that will be use. We need to consider the following:What vocabulary our students can already produce or understand..Word families (i.e., nomads/nomadic) and words with multiple meanings.Words that might be confusing such as to found since they may already know the word found as the past tense of the verb to find ( negative interference)Words that will increase student access to the content, e.g., idioms, logical connectors.What other words would be critical to the concept and are useful across curricular areas? (Go to the next slide)
29 SDAIE Vocabulary Activity In your group, review the standards to identify three additional vocabulary words that would be essential to the lessonSay:In your group, please review the standards once more to identify three additional SDAIE words that would be essential to the lesson. (Stay on this slide while participants discuss the prompt in their groups).
30 SDAIE Element: Content empirecharacteristicsSay:Please share out some of the terms that your groups came up with.(Show animation after volunteers suggest words to the whole group)These words are not only critical to the concept but they are also useful across curricular areas.Remember, when we speak about SDAIE vocabulary, we are looking for words that will increase access to content and facilitate comprehension.
31 ReflectionWhich (if any) components of this section, “The What,” are not currently part of your planning for a content lesson?Say:Look at this question and reflect on your planning.When you plan, what components of this section have been always present?Which ones were not present?Group DiscussionWhole Group shareIn our pilot schools, teachers implementing the lesson planning template have indicated the following components as something that they have not previously considered in their planning:Big idea/concept: specifically conceptualizing the main idea of the unit based on the standards targeted and teaching materials used. It is expressed in sentence form and indicates the cognition involved, e.g., going beyond the standard descriptor “students will know…”Language Objective and Language Forms: Looking at content through the language lensSDAIE vocabulary: identifying vocabulary that is not necessarily content specific and limiting it to 10 words.
32 SDAIE Planning the “HOW” Say:Now we are going to take a look at the HOW in the design template- How will the content be delivered?
33 ***Remember, In this part of the planning we are going to consider, in particular, how to make it comprehensible, interactive, what connections might be necessary, and how those connections are going to be made.Say:Please read the Directed Lesson sectionUp to this point we have focused on the content to be taughtIn this part of the planning we are going to consider, in particular, how to make it comprehensible, interactive and how and what connections might be necessary.33
34 SDAIE Element: Connections Sahara DesertNiger RiverSavannahFocus Standard7.4.1 – Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest, savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth of the Ghana and Mali empires.Say:In thinking about a personal connection, the SDAIE lesson plan calls for students to link the idea of tradesmen with personal experiences. The idea is for students to realize that traveling salesmen see many different towns and meet different kinds of people.Additionally, the Model lesson called for previous learning on the geography of the area and the trade in gold and salt. Making connections to the geographical features and climate of the area is critical to understanding the growth and dominance of the empire of Ghana.In addition, students should have completed a unit on the Quran, which provides a background for the religious references made in the reading selection.It is important to note that although we always make connections at the beginning of a lesson, this is not a linear activity. In reality connections are made at any point depending on the comprehension needs of the students. You will see an example of this later in the sample lesson. The difference is that it might not be as lengthy and might not be necessarily planned for, but rather, arises from perceived students’ needs based on checks for comprehension.
35 SDAIE Elements: Comprehensibility and Interaction Advanced Graphic OrganizersNarrated Pictorial Input ChartSay:The two comprehension strategies used in this lesson are Advanced Graphic Organizers (G. O.) and the Narrated Pictorial Input Chart. Let’s take a look at the first one, graphic organizers. Which graphic organizers were used?
36 Main Standard7.4 Students analyze the geographical, political, economic, religious and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa.Say:Please read the headings for each section of the G.O.GRAPES stands for:GeographyReligionAchievementsPolitical StructureEconomySocial StructureHave a volunteer read the directions for the G.O.How do they support the objectives and skills?Possible answers:Allows for identification and verification of information.The categories of GRAPES are aligned to the standards.
37 Narrated Pictorial Input Chart Rationale The Narrated Pictorial Input Chart is a SDAIE strategy design to make vocabulary and concepts comprehensible by drawing in front of the students as the teacher narrates an event(s) or explain a process. This strategy facilitates comprehension through establishing a one to one correspondence between spoken and written concept and visual clue. The resulting chart becomes a resource for students to assist them in organizing information and describing events and processes.Say:The second comprehension strategy used in this lesson is a Narrated Pictorial Input Chart, which is a modified version of the Pictorial Input Chart strategy initially developed by Marcia Brechtel (1992).Read the rationale.Drawing also helps brain imprinting. This support the recalling of events and the acquisition of vocabularyToday you will have an opportunity to experience the strategy.Handout: Narrated Pictorial Input Chart
38 SDAIE Element: Comprehensibility Say:Look at the Input and Model section. As I stated before, if the teacher introduces the content through careful modeling, students will feel more confident during the directed and independent practice sections of the lesson.I am going to briefly model these steps.
39 Say:I will model the use of the narrated input chart and the use of an additional advanced graphic organizer- a “Flee” map.
40 Read the first paragraph as you mark the map indicating The pathway of the nomadic tribe,The Sahara DesertThe salt, gold, and ivory tradesHave the vocabulary pictures/ cards placed next to the map so you can point to them as you read. Uncover the appropriate sections in the timeline as you give the dates of the events.Once you finish reading the first paragraph, move over to the “Flee” Map. Ask questions, and, as you elicit answers from participants, begin to fill in the first section of the map.Continue to the second paragraph. Read and continue marking the map, adding vocabulary words to the word wall, and uncovering sections in the timeline.Ask for a volunteer to complete the next section of the Flee Map. Have participants categorize the sentences according to the GRAPES categories in order to model what they will have to do in the Guided Practice.Have volunteers share some of their findings using the sentence frames.
41 SDAIE Elements: Comprehensibility and Interaction Say:After the Narrated Pictorial Input Chart, students have a sense of the information that they will read in a secondary source. This will give them the opportunity to interact with the information by reading it on their own.The idea is that having the key vocabulary charted during the Pictorial Input Chart activity will facilitate the students’ reading and the input chart will facilitate comprehension and enable students to categorize the information and access the primary and secondary sources.
42 Say:Please take one minute to read the first paragraph.Do you think that after participating in the Narrated Pictorial Input Chart, students will now be able to understand this secondary source?Which parts of this section can be used to complete the GRAPES organizer?Get volunteers to share information from their GRAPES graphic organizer.
43 Say:Let’s look at the primary source.Why is this a primary source?Read the first excerpt.Point out that when students are ready to read their primary source it’s important to model the use of the graphic organizer and tap their prior knowledge on Islam. This is an example of making connections during the Guided Practice to scaffold an activityWhich sections of the GRAPES can we completed using the primary source reading?
44 Say:Is that new information or is it already part of the GRAPES?If it is new, enter it in the second box. If it is the same, put a check in the box. Point out that in this way students are using the Research and Evidence Skill since they are verifying information through different sources.
45 Narrated Pictorial Input Chart nomadsnomadicNarrated Pictorial Input ChartBerbersSenegal RiverNiger RiverSay:For some of you, it might be easier to create a computer generated map of Africa.
46 SDAIE Elements: Content and Comprehensibility Say:We are now going to go over the independent practice. Give the participants a minute to review this section.Who can find/ remember the content objective?Does this activity meet the content objective?
47 Sample Summary Text Frame ___________ had distinct characteristics which contributed to ______________. Geographically, _________________. The religion of ____________________. The people also made achievements in the areas of _______________. Politically, __________________. Their economy was based on ______________, and the social structure ____________. The combination of these characteristics led to _______________ .Say:Please take a look at the sample summary text frame. This is a scaffold intended for students at the lowest proficiency levels or students who are struggling writers.
48 Reflection Review the SDAIE Critical Elements Reflection questions Identify which features are evident in this lessonSay:Let’s examine the handout.The questions are going to be utilized to reflect upon the lesson and identify the SDAIE features that are evident in this phase of the lesson design.Assign an element per tableHave participants specifically identify evidence of features to answer questions.Handout: SDAIE Four Critical Elements Reflection Questions48
49 Table DiscussionHow can this lesson design template be used at your school?Say:How can this lesson design template be used at your school?Elicit responses from the participants.Possible answers include:Lesson design for learning teamsAdopted lesson plan format for SLCsLesson plan template for individual teachersLesson studyCompare existing lessons, model lessons, departmental lessons to templateOverlay for TESupport for struggling individual teachers or departments
50 Bring back participants to the features of each element that they were able to identify when discussing the Reflection Questions.Say:In planning a SDAIE lesson you must include all 4 critical elements.The access to core strategies cooperative learning, academic language development and advanced graphic organizers are integral features of the four SDAIE elements. They are not separate from SDAIE and thus consider as something else they are asking us to do.SDAIE provides a solid structure for our ELs to access core instruction.50
51 Next StepsSay:In Session 3 we will take a closer look at language objectives and will continue to provide an opportunity for understanding a content lesson using SDAIE methodology and the planning template.
52 Objectives Learn the components of the SDAIE Lesson Planning Template. 2. Look at a sample lesson to identify the four critical elements of SDAIE.Say:We hope that the training has allowed us to meet our objectives and that it has afforded us to gain a deeper understanding of the SDAIE elements.52