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Effective Team Management

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1 Effective Team Management
Chapter 11 Effective Team Management

2 Learning Objectives Explain why groups and teams are key contributors to organizational effectiveness Identify the different types of groups and teams that help managers and organizations achieve their goals Explain how different elements of group dynamics influence the functioning and effectiveness of groups and teams

3 Learning Objectives Explain why it is important for groups and teams to have a balance of conformity and deviance and a moderate level of cohesiveness Describe how managers can motivate group members to achieve organizational goals and reduce social loafing in groups and teams

4 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness
Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs Team A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective

5 Figure 11.1- Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness

6 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers
Synergy: Performance gains that result when individuals and departments coordinate their actions Factors that contribute to synergy Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one another To correct one another’s mistakes To solve problems immediately as they arise

7 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers
To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problem or goal To accomplish work that is too vast or all-encompassing for any individual to achieve on his or her own

8 Teams and Innovation Innovation - Implementation of creative ideas for new products, new technologies, new services, or even new organizational structures essential for organizational effectiveness Using teams to innovate has advantages: Team members can uncover one another’s errors or false assumptions Team members can critique one another’s approaches and build on one another’s strengths while compensating for weaknesses

9 Groups and Teams as Motivators
Members of groups are likely to be more satisfied working together than working alone Experience of working alongside other highly charged and motivated people can be stimulating and motivating Team members can see how their efforts and expertise directly contribute to the achievement of team and organizational goals Teams provide needed social interaction and help employees cope with work-related stressors

10 Figure 11.2 Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations

11 Types of Groups and Teams
Formal group: A group that managers establish to achieve organization goals Informal group: A group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs

12 Question What type of group do employees form to help achieve their own goals ? A. Formal group B. Informal group C. Command group D. Task group The correct answer is “B” – Informal group.

13 Types of Groups and Teams
Top-management team: A group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments Research and Development team: A team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products

14 Types of Groups and Teams
Command groups: A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit Task forces: A committee of managers or non- managerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called an “ad hoc” committee

15 Types of Groups and Teams
Self-managed work team: A group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide Virtual team: A team whose members rarely meet face-to-face Interact by using various forms of information technology

16 Types of Groups and Teams
Friendship groups: Informal group composed of employees who enjoy one another’s company and socialize with one another Interest groups: Informal group of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization

17 Group Dynamics The characteristics and processes that affect the functioning and efficiency of a group Five key elements of group dynamics Group size and roles Group leadership Group development Group norms Group cohesiveness

18 Group Size and Roles Small groups—between two and nine members
Interact more with each other and find it easier to coordinate their efforts More motivated, satisfied, and committed Find it easier to share information Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions for group success Disadvantage: Members of small groups have fewer resources available to accomplish their goals

19 Group Size and Roles Large groups—with 10 or more members
Have more resources at their disposal to achieve group goals than small groups do Let managers obtain the advantages stemming from the division of labor Division of labor: Splitting the work to be performed into particular tasks and assigning tasks to individual workers

20 Group Size and Roles Disadvantages of large groups:
Difficult to share information with, and coordinate the activities Members of large groups sometimes experience lower levels of motivation, satisfaction, and commitment

21 Group Roles Group roles: Set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his position in the group Role making: Taking the initiative to modify an assigned role by assuming additional responsibilities

22 Group Leadership Effective leadership is a key ingredient for high- performing groups, teams, and organizations Sometimes managers assume the leadership role in groups and teams Appoint a member of a group who is not a manager to be group leader or chairperson Group or team members may choose their own leaders Leader may emerge naturally as group members work together

23 Question Which stage is most important in group development?
A. Forming B. Storming C. Norming D. Performing E. Adjourning There is no one best answer. This question should give students the opportunity to discuss the importance of each stage in group efficiency and effectiveness.

24 Figure 11.3 - Five Stages of Group Development

25 Group Norms Group norms: Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow Managers should encourage members of a group to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals

26 Conformity and Deviance
Members conform to norms for three reasons To obtain rewards Imitate respected members Because they feel the behavior is right

27 Conformity and Deviance
Failure to conform, or deviance, occurs when a member of a group violates a group norm Group might try to get the member to change his or her deviant ways Group might expel the member Group might change the norm to be consistent with the member’s behavior Deviance allows for new ideas in the group

28 Figure 11.4 - Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups

29 Group Cohesiveness Degree to which members are attracted to their group

30 Figure 11.5 - Sources and Consequences of Group Cohesiveness

31 Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance
Motivating group members to achieve organizational goals: Members themselves should benefit when the group performs well—rewards can be monetary or in other forms such as special recognition Developing a fair pay system leading high individual motivation and high group or team performance is a major challenge to managers

32 Question What is the human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than when they work alone? A. Slackerism B. Laziness C. Social loafing D. Social unresponsiveness The correct answer is “C” – social loafing.

33 Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance
Social loafing: Human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than when they work alone Can result in lower group performance May even prevent a group from attaining its goals

34 Figure 11.6 - Three Ways to Reduce Social Loafing

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