2 Ivan IVIn the 1500’s Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in technology and governmentRussia was basically run by church leaders and landowners known as boyarsIn 1546 a young prince took power of Russia and named himself Czar Ivan IV
3 Ivan IV Ivan IV made many reforms Created a general council to centralize the governmentPromoted military officers based on merit rather than statusPassed laws that reduced the power of the boyarsIvan also expanded Russia’s borders eastBecause of these positive changes the time period from 1547 to 1563 are known as Ivan’s “good period”
4 Ivan IV During the 1560’s Ivan changed Became suspicious of his advisors and sent some away while killing othersWhen his wife died he became convinced she was murdered and that people were conspiring against himCreated a private police force who brutally punished anyone who spoke out against the czar
5 Ivan IVIn 1565 Ivan took land from boyars and ordered the killing of thousands of people in the city of Novgorod because he suspected that they wanted to separate from RussiaIn 1581 he killed his own son, who was in line to become czarAll of these issues were probably due to mental illness, but they earned Ivan the nickname, Ivan the Terrible
6 Ivan IVFor many years Russia endured the “Time of Troubles” because there was chaos over who should be the new czar.Eventually a relative of Ivan’s first wife, Michael became czar, the first czar of the Romanov dynasty that ruled until 1917
7 Peter the GreatIn 1682 Peter I became czar. He was too young to rule, so his sister was in charge until Peter turned 17 and removed his sister from powerPeter was physically and mentally strongPeter wanted to modernize Russia in a process known as westernizationTo do this, in 1697 Peter went on a journey throughout Europe to see what Russia needed in order to modernize.
8 Peter the Great Peter made many reforms in Russia Built a navy Got control of the militaryPut the church under the power of the stateBuilt Russian industryStarted the first Russian newspaperSponsored new schoolsAdopted European style clothing and groomingBuilt a new capital city at St. Petersburg and designed it using European architecture styles.
12 Catherine the GreatCatherine was actually a German princess who married Czar Peter III (grandson of Peter the Great)Russian nobles grew angry at Peter III’s weak and incompetent rule, so Catherine helped to overthrow and murder the czar.
14 Catherine the GreatCatherine followed Peter the Great’s policy of modernizationHowever, Catherine faced challenges as czarinaIn 1768 the Ottoman Empire joined with Poland to help gain Polish independence. This led to a war that Russia wonDuring the war a man pretending to be Peter III started gaining support from Russian peasants and began to rebel.Even though the rebellion was unsuccessful Catherine realized she needed tighter control over the rural areas of Russia
15 Central EuropeSince the 1450’s the Holy Roman Emperors had been members of the Hapsburg family (remember Charles V?)In 1618 in Prague, an official of the H.R.E. Ferdinand II ordered that two Protestant churches be shut down.The Protestants responded by throwing the HRE’s men out of the palace windows
16 Central EuropeThis conflict sparked other disagreements throughout Central Europe over who was in charge: the HRE or the local noblesThese conflicts began the Thirty Years WarProtestant side: German states, France, Denmark, SwedenCatholic side: Holy Roman Empire, Spain
17 Central EuropeThe Thirty Years war lasted from and killed millions on all sidesThe two sides agreed to the Treaty of Westphalia ending the warExtended religious tolerance to both Catholics and ProtestantsReduced the power of the HREStrengthened the rulers of the states within the Holy Roman Empire
19 Central EuropeIn 1740 the HRE Charles VI died without a male heir, but agreed to pass his power onto his daughter Maria TheresaA group from Prussia known as Hohenzollerns, led by Frederick the Great, did not agree to this leading to the war of Austrian Succession.The war was lopsided against Maria so she asked for peace in 1748The War led to an increase in power for Prussia in Central Europe
20 Central Europe In 1756 war broke out again – the Seven Years War. One side: Prussia and Great BritainOther side: Austria, France, RussiaFighting even took place in the British and French colonies in North America (in America we refer to this as the French and Indian War)The war ended in a stalemate, but Prussia continued to grow as a powerful state in Central Europe