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Monarchies of Russia and Central Europe

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1 Monarchies of Russia and Central Europe

2 Ivan IV In the 1500’s Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in technology and government Russia was basically run by church leaders and landowners known as boyars In 1546 a young prince took power of Russia and named himself Czar Ivan IV

3 Ivan IV Ivan IV made many reforms
Created a general council to centralize the government Promoted military officers based on merit rather than status Passed laws that reduced the power of the boyars Ivan also expanded Russia’s borders east Because of these positive changes the time period from 1547 to 1563 are known as Ivan’s “good period”

4 Ivan IV During the 1560’s Ivan changed
Became suspicious of his advisors and sent some away while killing others When his wife died he became convinced she was murdered and that people were conspiring against him Created a private police force who brutally punished anyone who spoke out against the czar

5 Ivan IV In 1565 Ivan took land from boyars and ordered the killing of thousands of people in the city of Novgorod because he suspected that they wanted to separate from Russia In 1581 he killed his own son, who was in line to become czar All of these issues were probably due to mental illness, but they earned Ivan the nickname, Ivan the Terrible

6 Ivan IV For many years Russia endured the “Time of Troubles” because there was chaos over who should be the new czar. Eventually a relative of Ivan’s first wife, Michael became czar, the first czar of the Romanov dynasty that ruled until 1917

7 Peter the Great In 1682 Peter I became czar. He was too young to rule, so his sister was in charge until Peter turned 17 and removed his sister from power Peter was physically and mentally strong Peter wanted to modernize Russia in a process known as westernization To do this, in 1697 Peter went on a journey throughout Europe to see what Russia needed in order to modernize.

8 Peter the Great Peter made many reforms in Russia Built a navy
Got control of the military Put the church under the power of the state Built Russian industry Started the first Russian newspaper Sponsored new schools Adopted European style clothing and grooming Built a new capital city at St. Petersburg and designed it using European architecture styles.




12 Catherine the Great Catherine was actually a German princess who married Czar Peter III (grandson of Peter the Great) Russian nobles grew angry at Peter III’s weak and incompetent rule, so Catherine helped to overthrow and murder the czar.


14 Catherine the Great Catherine followed Peter the Great’s policy of modernization However, Catherine faced challenges as czarina In 1768 the Ottoman Empire joined with Poland to help gain Polish independence. This led to a war that Russia won During the war a man pretending to be Peter III started gaining support from Russian peasants and began to rebel. Even though the rebellion was unsuccessful Catherine realized she needed tighter control over the rural areas of Russia

15 Central Europe Since the 1450’s the Holy Roman Emperors had been members of the Hapsburg family (remember Charles V?) In 1618 in Prague, an official of the H.R.E. Ferdinand II ordered that two Protestant churches be shut down. The Protestants responded by throwing the HRE’s men out of the palace windows

16 Central Europe This conflict sparked other disagreements throughout Central Europe over who was in charge: the HRE or the local nobles These conflicts began the Thirty Years War Protestant side: German states, France, Denmark, Sweden Catholic side: Holy Roman Empire, Spain

17 Central Europe The Thirty Years war lasted from and killed millions on all sides The two sides agreed to the Treaty of Westphalia ending the war Extended religious tolerance to both Catholics and Protestants Reduced the power of the HRE Strengthened the rulers of the states within the Holy Roman Empire


19 Central Europe In 1740 the HRE Charles VI died without a male heir, but agreed to pass his power onto his daughter Maria Theresa A group from Prussia known as Hohenzollerns, led by Frederick the Great, did not agree to this leading to the war of Austrian Succession. The war was lopsided against Maria so she asked for peace in 1748 The War led to an increase in power for Prussia in Central Europe

20 Central Europe In 1756 war broke out again – the Seven Years War.
One side: Prussia and Great Britain Other side: Austria, France, Russia Fighting even took place in the British and French colonies in North America (in America we refer to this as the French and Indian War) The war ended in a stalemate, but Prussia continued to grow as a powerful state in Central Europe


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