Presentation on theme: "China: from old to new Imperialism in China. The First Dynasties SHANGDYNASTY1500-1027 BC ZHOU DYNASTY1027 TO 256 BC QIN DYNASTY221 – 206 BC Start the."— Presentation transcript:
The First Dynasties SHANGDYNASTY1500-1027 BC ZHOU DYNASTY1027 TO 256 BC QIN DYNASTY221 – 206 BC Start the Great Wall HAN DYNASTY202 – 220 BC TANG DYNASTY618-907 BC SONG DYNASTY960- 1279 BC MONGOLS1260- 1368 BC
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 THE BEGINNING: In 1368 the Mogul rule in China was overthrown. This dynasty was called the Ming or "brilliant" dynasty. GOVERNMENT: Governmental reform made new laws which were harsh, however, the reform made China prosperous. Agricultural productivity was very high and this in turn allowed many to turn to other tasks including reading and writing. TRADE: The Chinese explored in the ships called Junks but never too far from China. Confucian philosophy regarded trade as the lowest level of Chinese society as it did not produce anything. Jeng Ho (1405-1433) explored for the Government, but in 1433 all expeditions were stopped. CONFUCIAN PHILOSOPHY: This philosophy taught that human nature is good. Also that people should be tolerant and kind. Teachings led to a code of politeness. Sayings of Confucius collected in Analects. GOVT. CONTROL: The Capital city was Nanjing. At this time the emperor shifted the capital to Beijing and in 1421 the Forbidden City was opened. Much of the emperor's time was spend isolated in the Forbidden City, with him meeting with his advisors rarely if at all. THE END: This situation continued until a time when the Manchu from the North invaded, there was not time or funds available to defend northern China from Manchu takeover.
Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 THE BEGINNING: The Manchus set up the Qing or “Pure” dynasty in to include northern China in 1644. They were followers of the Confucian religion and kept control of the Chinese by force. CONTROL: The administration of the government was by the Manchu or under Manchu supervision. At a 30:1 ratio the Manchus were outnumbered and had to adapt to Chinese customs of there wanted to stay. The Manchus controlled the military and the government jobs so they could easily control the society. By 1645, they forced the Chinese to wear their hair in a Queue or braid and dictated that Chinese wear a tight, high collared jacket. POPULATION: Under Qing control, the Chinese population grew from 150 million in 1600 to 350 million in 1800. Because of this population growth there was an increased emphasis on food production. Although the farming techniques for products like rice were labor-intensive, the population allowed this to continue. OPIUM WARS: Opium Wars INTERNAL PROBLEMS: This Chinese dynasty was brought down by internal rebellions as well as government corruption. By 1850 the Taiping Rebellion took the Qing from power and the main threat to the Chinese was from foreign invasion.
OPIUM WARS (1839-1842) Until the early 1800’s, China did not trade with the West disliking the foreign influence. Then only limited trade. By 1839, the Chinese resists the British militarily. They were tired of the British traders using Opium from the British colonies to trade. Many of the Chinese became addicted to Opium. By 1842 the British win the war and sign a treaty with the Chinese called the Treaty of Nanking. The Chinese call the “Unequal Treaties”. The Europeans gain many ports in which they can trade. The British gained not only a trading colony in Hong Kong but repayment for war expenses. These trade treaties weaken the Qing Dynasty and ultimately allow an internal uprising called the Taiping Rebellion to result from 1851-1864. Christian Taipings rise up against the Government, the European assist the Qing government in putting down the uprising.
European Influence leads to Boxer Rebellion As a result of the Treaty of Nanking, the ports of China become spheres of influence for Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan as they enjoy exclusive trade in their assigned ports. 1894- Japan attacks China and this begins 100 Days of Reform by the Emperor. Conservatives take over and Ci Xi rules the Country. 1899- The US gets in the game with the Open Door policy in which all will be able to trade, none exclusively. 1900- Approved and encouraged by the Empress Ci Xi, these Boxers attack foreigners in what is known as the Boxer Rebellion. Several hundred foreigners are killed and the Europeans send 25,000 troops to extract their people.
EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC 1905-Sun Yat Sen is elected as the head of the United League or the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party). They are discontented with the ineffective governing of the country of China by the Emperor. 1908-Ci Xi dies and Pu Ye becomes emperor at the age of 2. 1911- The Revolution of 1911 occurs due to the inability of the Qing dynasty to effectively run the country and to keep out the foreigners. In an attempt to keep control, small changes are made but they are too late. 1912- Sun Yat-sen becomes the president of the Republic of China.