PHOTOSYNTHESIS What does a plant need to survive? _________________ Which of the above is organic?____________
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert inorganic molecules into organic molecules. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical bond energy. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into glucose.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Electron Micrograph of a chloroplast
Dark Phase/Reaction In order for the DARK PHASE to occur, HYDROGEN has to be carried from the LIGHT PHASE to the DARK PHASE. This carrier molecule is called NADP. When NADP is carrying hydrogen, it is NADPH.
Dark Phase/Reaction Also called Light Independent Reaction Also called Carbon Fixation. In this phase, CARBON DIOXIDE from the atmosphere combines with HYDROGEN from the light reaction to form GLUCOSE. ATP is diffused from the grana into the stroma for the dark reaction.
Carbon Fixation Formula and drawing of Dark Reaction: CO 2 + H 2 2 PGAL glucose
Factors Effecting Photosynthesis Temperature Light Intensity Availability of Water Elevation
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Occurs in plants AND animals. Occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA and CYTOPLASM.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION The process by which energy in food molecules (glucose) is converted to a form that can be used by the cells (ATP). Can be AEROBIC (uses O 2 ) or ANAEROBIC (does NOT use O 2 )
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Occurs in the CYTOPLASM Makes energy WITHOUT using oxygen. Glucose is partially broken down. Also called GLYCOLYSIS or FERMENTATION. Produces: Ethyl Alcohol ( in yeast) Lactic Acid (in bacteria or human muscle cells).
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Pyruvic Acid produced by the breakdown of sugars during GLYCOLYSIS
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Making ATP USING oxygen. Occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA More energy efficient than anaerobic respiration (releases more energy). Bonds in glucose are completely broken down.
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 2ATP Pyruvate CO 2 + H 2 O + 38 ATP O 2 O 2
Steps of Aerobic Respiration 1. Glycolysis (Anaerobic Respiration) Makes pyruvic acid, which is then broken downMakes pyruvic acid, which is then broken down Produces 4 ATP (gross)Produces 4 ATP (gross)
Steps of Aerobic Respiration 2. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Produces citric acid, which is then broken downProduces citric acid, which is then broken down Bonds in the sugar are completely broken down, releasing CO 2Bonds in the sugar are completely broken down, releasing CO 2
Steps of Aerobic Respiration 3. Electron Transport Chain Oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor so glucose bonds can be FULLY broken down.Oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor so glucose bonds can be FULLY broken down. Releases H 2 OReleases H 2 O