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**Based on presentations given by Juliana (Brooks) Mortenson at:**

● Spring 2009 Meeting of the American Physical Society (NES), May 8, 2009, Boston MA ● SPIE Optics and Photonics, The Nature of Light: What are Photons? III, August 3-4, 2009, San Diego, CA ● Materials Science and Technology 2009 Conference and Exhibition, October , 2009, Pittsburgh PA ● April Meeting of the American Physical Society, February 13-17, 2010, Washington, D.C.

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**Einstein’s Hidden Variables**

Introduction Historical Perspective Planck’s Energy Constant The Historical Record The Hidden Time Variable

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**Planck’s Famous Quantum Paper**

Introduction Planck’s Famous Quantum Paper Quantum Resonance Hypothesis Hypothesis E = h v Quantum formula EM = kB T Thermodynamic formula On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum. Planck, M., Annalen der Physik, V 4, p. 553, 1901.

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**Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect**

“The simplest conception is that a light quantum transfers its entire energy to a single electron…” “We have to assume that, in ionization of a gas by ultraviolet light, one energy quantum of light serves to ionize one gas molecule.” Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt. Einstein A., Annalen der Physik, Vol 17, p 132, 1905. 4

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**We believe, however, that such a theory is possible”**

Introduction The Einstein – Podolsky – Rosen paper The EPR Paper “The description of reality as given by a wave function is not complete… We believe, however, that such a theory is possible” A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, Can a quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? Phys. Rev (1935).

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**Introduction David Bohm Bell’s Theorem**

The explicate vs. the implicate order D. Bohm. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. Routledge Classics, New York, 1980. D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley. The Undivided Universe. Routledge, New York, 1993 Bell’s Theorem A Local Realistic interpretation of Quantum mechanics is impossible. J. S. Bell, On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox, Physics 1, (1964)

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**Introduction SPIE Photonics East,1-3 October 2006**

“The failure of the superstring theory program can be traced to its lack of any fundamental new symmetry principle. … theorists [must] turn … away from this failed program and toward the difficult task of better understanding the symmetries of the natural world.” Not Even Wrong. Woit, P., Basic Books, New York, 2006 “…the truth lies in a direction that requires a radical rethinking of our basic ideas about space, time and the quantum world.” The Trouble with Physics, Smolin L., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 2006 “paradoxes … arise with the assumption that photons are indivisible elementary particles...” SPIE Photonics East,1-3 October 2006 Advanced Photon Counting Techniques (SPIE Vol. 6372, paper no. 29)

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Introduction

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Hidden Variables

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**Quantum formula (hidden time variable and energy constant)**

Thermodynamic formula (hidden resonance variable)

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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**The Ripple Effect in Quantum Mechanics**

VARIABLES CONSTANTS PARTICLES PARADOXES AND PRINCIPLES tm h light Uncertainty rf m Wave/particle c ρ Wave Equation Resonance Hypothesis Speeds of Light SYMMETRIES Mass Of Light TimeSpace Conservation of Energy, Mass & Momentum

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The dual nature of light l wave theory of light explains most phenomena involving light: propagation in straight line reflection refraction superposition,

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