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Chapter 4: The Structure of Matter

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1 Chapter 4: The Structure of Matter
Section 4: Organic and Biochemical Compounds

2 Key Terms organic compound – carbon containing covalent compound
hydrocarbon – compound made of C & H, e.g., alkane (single bonds only), alkene (at least 1 double bond) & alynes (…1 triple bond)

3 Key Terms 2 polymer – large organic molecule made of many smaller bonded units, monomers DNA – C, H, O, N & P containing biochemical that determines genetic makeup double helix - twisted ladder shape of DNA

4 Key Terms 3 carbohydrate – OC made of C, H & O; it provides nutrients to live cells. glucose – simplest carb that is stored as glycogen if not used right away amino acids – 20 naturally occurring organic molecules that combine to make proteins

5 Key Terms 4 protein – biological polymer made of bonded amino acids, e.g., insulin which controls use & storage of glucose in the body

6 Things To Know/Answer How do carbon atoms bond covalently to form OCs? What are the names and structures of groups of simple organic com-pounds & polymers? Polymers essential for life are made of what?

7 Organic Compounds Made of molecules with C always, usually H and often O, N, S & P C9H8O4 (aspirin), C6H14O6 (sorbitol) & C14H18N205 (aspartame) are examples. C atoms form 4 bonds & make hydrocarbons if only bonded to H.

8 Organic Compounds 2 methane (CH4) - simplest hydro-carbon
Alkanes have single covalent bonds. They get called normal if 3 or more are bonded in a straight line. Memorize Table 4-9 on page 131.

9 Organic Compounds 3 condensed structural formula – show with formulas only how atoms bond like CH3(CH2)6CH3 Alkane chemical formulas = CnH2n+2 except for cyclic ones. Study Figure 4-26 on page 131.

10 Organic Compounds 4 To name hydrocarbons find the longest line of Cs for root name where ending = -ane, -ene or –yne for alkanes, alkenes or alkynes. The prefix matches the # of Cs in the line with numbers inserted to tell where branches are.

11 Organic Compounds 5 Study Figure 4-26 on page 131.
Alkenes have double H2C=CH2 bonds; the simplest is ethene. Alcohols have –OH or hydroxyl groups, and there names end in –ol. The simplest is ethanol, CH3CH2OH.

12 Organic Compounds 6 Alcohol molecules behave like H2O via -OH to -OH attraction. For this reason, alcohols tend to be liquids at room temperature and to have higher boiling points than similarly sized OCs.

13 Polymers DNA, rubber, wood and plastic are examples of polymers b/c they all are made of large noodle like molecules with repeating subunits called monomers. Some are natural; others are synthetic, man-made. Heat chars the first kind but melts the second.

14 Polymers 2 Polymer structure determines elasticity, ability to change shape but reform. Cross links between monomers give this trait. polymer memory – returning to original shape after stretching…

15 Biochemical Compounds
These occur naturally and are very important to living things. Carbohydrates give creatures energy, but proteins form tissues unlike DNA, which is genetic information about what proteins are necessary.

16 Biochemical Compounds 2
Many carbs are made of glucose bonded together to form starch which plants use to store energy. Enzymes are special proteins that break down starch among other compounds.

17 Biochemical Compounds 3
Proteins get digested into amino acids, which bodies reassemble into different proteins that they need. DNA is dē oxy rī bō nū clĕ ĭc acid. Its chains of paired bases are cytosine (C) always with guanine (G) & adenine (A) with thymine (T). Cellular copies of genetic materials are in chromosomes of DNA.

18 Biochemical Compounds 4
Copying of DNA happens after protein helicases unwind the pairs. Next, protein polymerases attach new bases or monomers to exposed ones on open sides of the unpaired strands. Last, 2 identical strands of DNA remain.

19 Biochemical Compounds 5
DNA structure = twisted ladder, double helix. See Figure 4-32 on page 136. Sides of ladder = alternating sugar molecules and phosphate units. Steps = paired bases where each extends from a supporting sugar.

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