Chapter 2 Families Today
Changes Affecting Families Today
Changes in society have caused major changes in the family. Before the Industrial Revolution, most families lived on farms. Farm families met most of their own needs. They were producers who built their own homes, made their own clothes, and grew their own food.
These families consisted of the immediate family (parents and their children) as well as grandparents and other family members. During the Industrial Revolution, many families moved off the farms and into the cities to work in factories, leaving relatives and friends behind. In the cities, families began to depend on others outside the family to produce most of the needed goods and services. City families became consumers.
Changes in Family Roles
The roles of family members have changed through the years. Until the 1700s, parents were the only ones to meet children’s physical needs for food, clothing, shelter, and safety.
The main focus of parents was on the survival and character development of children.
When children reached age 4 to 7 yrs., they were expected to work long days in factories or on farms.
Labor laws, created by advocates for children, changed the role children played in the economy.
Family support groups, such as schools, youth groups, and children’s health providers began to support the parenting role.
Nuclear Families A father, mother, and their biological child or children who live together for a nuclear family.
In nuclear families, children often leave home when they become adults.
When these children marry they begin their own families separate from their parents.
Children may be apt to learn more flexible home and child care roles in the nuclear family.
Adults often share these tasks. Children also have the chance to see how spouses should relate to each other.
SPF are headed by one adult. These families form when a parent dies, parents divorce or separate, or a single parent adopts children. A single parent may also head the family if parents have children outside of marriage or a parent deserts the family.
Raising children alone is hard.
Single parents face the responsibility of providing care, supervision, and guidance for their children alone.
Children in well-adjusted single-parent homes are often more stable than children in unhappy two-parent homes. Some co-parents go to court to seek joint custody. The shared legal right to provide care and make decisions about their children’s lives.
Extended Families In an extended family, more than two generations of a family live together. Sometimes the extended family lives in one home.
Step Families Stepfamilies are formed when a single parent marries another person. Two single parents marry each other in most cases. Families in which the children of both spouse will live with the couple are sometimes called a blended family.
Families with Adopted Children
Adoption occurs when a child of one pair of parents legally becomes the child of another parent or parents. Adoption legally ends the rights and responsibilities between a child and the birthparents (biological parents). Adoption give the child a new family.
Foster Families Foster Families are families in which adults provide temporary homes of children who cannot live with their birthparents. Foster parents assume the parenting responsibility for the children in their care. They fill these roles until the children are reunited with their birthparents or placed in adoptive homes.
The Family Life Cycle
Family Life Cycle is the series of six stages that many families go through over the years.
Single As you enter Young adulthood (begin at age 19), you begin to separate emotionally from your family. During this stage, you strive to become fully able to support yourself emotionally, physically, socially, and financially.
Couple The newly married couple start a life together by combining both family systems (yours and your spouse). They get to know each other and decide if they want children, and how soon. If not then they will stay in this stage until mid-years
Child Bearing The couple starts to have children. This stage
last until the birth of the last child. Parents learn their roles in caring for and guiding children.
Parenting The couple focus on guiding their children through the school-age and teen years. This stage last until children start to leave home.
Launching/Empty Nest The stage of launching adult children begins when your first child leaves home and ends with the "empty nest." When children leave home, there are both positive and negative consequences.
Mid Years The couple focuses on their marriage, planning for their future, and becoming grandparents. This stage last until the couple retires.
Aging This stage can be a great adventure where you are free from the responsibilities of raising your children and can simply enjoy the fruits of your life's work. Change includes dealing with the loss of family & friends and the preparation for our own death and the end of our generation. This stage last the rest of their lives.
Roles of Parents
Parents are responsible for the well-being of their children.
Children must be socialized into their culture by their parents and other members of their family. Children thrive in a nurturing environment and need guidance and discipline to learn right from wrong
Socialization Socialization is the training children receive to help them learn to live in a group. Learning occur as early as 5 yrs old. Socialization is complicated requires the passing down of many values that work toward the same end.
Nurturance Nurturance, in a narrow sense, includes the physical aspects of child care, such as feeding, dressing, and bathing children. Needs of children (mental, social, emotional and physical).
Guidance & Discipline Child guidance & discipline are important responsibilities of parenthood. Guidance includes the words and actions parents use to influence their child’s behavior. Discipline is the use of methods and techniques to teach children self-control.
Punishment is a consequence for a misdeed.
The goal of guidance and discipline is to teach children behaviors that will help them guide themselves.
Types of Discipline
Type of Discipline Power Assertion: occurs when parents use or threaten to use some form of physical punishment. Love Withdrawal: parents threaten children with being unloved or suggest some form of parent/child separation. Induction: discipline by reasoning and explaining.
Parenting Styles Authoritarian: the main objective is to make children completely obedient. Permissive: parents give children almost no guidance and rules. Democratic: parents set some rules but allow children some freedom.
Cultural Influences of Families
Culture Influences Families
Families are alike in many ways, but they may differ in the cultural groups in which they belong. Culture greatly affects a family’s life. Cultural diversity – having more than one culture represented.
Multicultural families continue to grow in the United States. In a multicultural family, more than one culture is represented.
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