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Organic Chemistry Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry Chapter 9

2 Carbon or Organic Chemistry
The study of elements and compounds found in living things “carbon compounds” – carbon (element of life) Carbon forms millions of compounds

3 The element carbon Atomic mass – 12 amu Atomic number – 6
Protons – 6; electrons – 6; neutrons – 6 Valence electrons: 4 Allotropes – different molecular configurations A number of these exist. The most commonly found – diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon such as charcoal, fullerenes

4 Properties of Organic Compounds
Contain C and H, often combined with a few other elements such as O and N Exist as a gas, liquid or low melting solids with strong odors; nonelectrolytes

5 When carbon is bonding with itself, describe as a covalent bond and/or a carbon to carbon bond
Ways C atoms can bond with other C atoms: C-C Single Bond C=C Double Bond CΞC Triple Bond Carbon can form up to four(4) covalent bonds.

6 Three types of formulas used for carbon compounds:
Three types of formulas used for carbon compounds: molecular formula – C2H8 graphic formula – CH3CH2CH3 structural formula - Video

7 Isomers Branches of the same compounds
Showing a different order of the elements in the compound Have same empirical formula, but different structural formula Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose

8 Hydrocarbons – contain carbon and hydrogen bonded by covalent bonds
Saturated – bond of hydrogen and carbon in a single bond / only singles Unsaturated – bond of hydrogen and carbon in a double or triple bonds/ at least one double or triple

9 Alkanes Straight chains, branched chains, or rings of H and C
Examples Methane: CH4 Ethane: C2H6 Propane: C3H8 Straight chains, branched chains, or rings of H and C Single bonds only Saturated Formula: 2n + 2

10 Alkenes Straight or branch chained hydrocarbons that have one or more carbon to carbon double bonds Unsaturated Formula: 2n Examples Ethene: C2H4 Propene: C3H6

11 Ethyne or acetylene: C2H2
Alkynes Straight or branch chained hydrocarbons having one or more carbon to carbon triple bonds Unsaturated Most reactive type Formula: 2n-2 Examples Ethyne or acetylene: C2H2 Propyne: C3H4

12 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene C6H6
Ring of 6 carbon atoms joined by single and double bonds Benzene – simplest aromatic hydrocarbon Many have strong odors or aromas Benzene C6H6

13 Substituted Hydrocarbons
Alcohols – take out an H and replace it with OH propanol (rubbing alcohol) ; ethanol Organic Acids – double bonded and have COOH acetic acid (vinegar), citric acid Esters – combination of alcohol and organic acids. Formulas have OH and COOH. polyesters Amines – contain an amino group -NH2 amino acids

14 Important biological compounds
Also known as biochemicals Essential to life Are usually polymers – large molecules made up of smaller repeating units called monomers

15 Types include Carbohydrates – have H, O, and C. Sugars, starches, cellulose (basic units are sugars)- basic monomers are monosaccharides or simple sugars- supply energy for organisms, store energy and serve as building materials for cells Lipids – Fats (solid at room temp) and oils (liquid at room temp) and waxes (made up of fatty acids and glycerol)- contain C, H, O – provide large amounts of energy, store energy, serve as building materials for cells

16 Nucleic Acids – DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) –C, H, O, N and P – basic monomers are nucleotides- store and transmit hereditary information, serve as blueprints for building living things Proteins – build and repair body parts- made up of amino acids (building blocks of proteins) – C, H, O, N, and some other elements such as S and Fe- control rate of cell processes, serve as building materials for muscles and bones, transport substances

17 Polymers Monomer –Single block of material that can be repeated and connected. Polymer – long chain of monomers linked together. Plastics – polymer based material that can be easily molded into shapes. Synthetic Fibers – strand of a man-made synthetic polymer. (polyester and dacron) Natural polymer – made in nature. Cocoon, silk, proteins in the body.

18 Important reactions in cells
Cells are basic building blocks of organisms (living things). Two important chemical processes – photosynthesis and cellular respiration

19 Photosynthesis Process of converting carbon dioxide and water to simple sugars 6CO H2O C6H12O carbon dioxide + water yields glucose Occurs in organisms that have chlorophyll – usually plants

20 Cellular Respiration

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