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 Does not involve sex cells  One organism is producing offspring  Most plants have this type of reproduction  Used by plants who do not produce.

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Presentation on theme: " Does not involve sex cells  One organism is producing offspring  Most plants have this type of reproduction  Used by plants who do not produce."— Presentation transcript:



3  Does not involve sex cells  One organism is producing offspring  Most plants have this type of reproduction  Used by plants who do not produce seeds  Plants can be grown from a leaf or stem  the plant parts are placed into water to grow new roots  Ex: potatoes, grasses

4  Fertilization needs to occur  Plants get help from water, wind and insects  Female reproductive organs produce eggs  Male reproductive organs produce sperm  Some species have both organs on the same plant and can usually reproduce by itself  Some plants have sex organs on separate plants and need to be near one another for fertilization to occur



7  Nonvascular plants do not produce seeds  You can grow these plants from spores  Sporophtye stage produces haploid spore in spore cases  These spores can grow into plants, which produce sex cells  Sporophtye stage of nonvascular plants is very short

8  Create flow chart

9  Nonvascular plants can also reproduce asexually


11  Fern leaves are called fronds  Have an underground stem called a rhizome  Roots that anchor plant and absorb nutrients and water grow from the rhizome  Fern sporophytes make their own food  Spores produced in sori-located on fronds  Gametophyte plant is called a prothallus, which also makes its own food  Can also reproduce asexually

12  Rhizomes grow to form branches  New fronds and roots develop from each branch  The new rhizome can be separated and grow on its own  Create flow chart of life cycle


14  Pollen grains have a water-resistant covering and contains gametophyte parts  Sperm can be produced by these parts, which do not need to swim to the female part of the plant  They are carried by pollinators, such as wind, gravity, wind, water or animals  Transfer of pollen to the female part is called pollination

15  When the pollen grain reaches the female part, sperm and a pollen tube are produced  The sperm travels through the tube  Fertilization occurs

16  Following fertilization, the female part develops into a seed  Seeds include an embryo, stored food and a protective seed coating  The embryo grows into a plant when it is planted  Stored food provides energy to the embryo when it starts to grow  Seeds develop differently in gymnosperms and angiosperms


18  Cones are the reproductive structures  All gymnosperms have different cones  Ex of gymnosperms: pines, firs, cedars, cycads and ginkgoes  Pine tree produces male and female cones  Gametophyte structures produced in cones  Scale of a female cone has two ovules where eggs are produced  Pollen grains are produced in the male cone  Male cones release pollen grains in the spring

19  Wings on the pollen grain help carry it to the female cone  Growth of pollen tube and sperm, and fertilization can take up to 15 months  Zygote grows into an embryo and a seed develops  It can take 2-3 for seeds to develop and be released from the female cones  Each seed grows into a new pine sporophyte


21  The sporophyte plant produces flowers  Flowers are reproductive organs  They contain contain gametophyte structures that produce the sperm or egg for sexual reproduction

22  4 main parts-petals, sepals, stamen and pistil 1. Petals  Are the colorful parts of the flower 2. Sepals  are usually small, green, leaf-like parts  Some are large and colorful like the flower  Form the outside of the flower bud

23 3. Stamen  Male reproductive organ  Made up of an anther and the filament  Pollen grain form inside the anther by meiosis  Sperm develops in each pollen grain 4. Pistil  Female reproductive organ  made up of stigma, style, ovary, ovule  Stigma is sticky and is where pollen grains land  style-sperm travels down

24  Ovary-swollen base of the pistil where ovules are formed  Ovules-produce gametophyte structures, which produce eggs  Pollinators of Flowers  Large, bright flowers-insects and other animals  An animal picks up pollen as it eats the flower, nectar or its pollen  The pollen is then spread to other flowers the animal visits  Other plants and animals depend on wind, rain or gravity

25  After pollination and fertilization seeds develop  Pollination happens when pollen grains land on the sticky stigma  Pollen tube grows down through the style and enters the ovary  Sperm travels down the tube and fertilizes the egg  Zygote forms and grows into an embryo


27  Most seeds grow only when they are placed on or in soil  Gravity aids most seed into reaching the soil  Wind dispersal helps seed plants too  Small seeds become airborne when they are released by the plant  Some have wing-like structures that allow the seed to move in the wind currents

28  Animals help disperse seeds  Some seeds are eaten with fruits and pass through the animal’s digestive track to reach the soil  Animals can also store or bury seeds  Seeds can also attach to fur, feathers and clothing, which disperses them  Water is another way seeds are dispersed  Rain drops can knock seeds out of the fruit  Seeds travel great distances by flowing water

29  Is the growth of a plant from a seed  Some seeds take a few days to grow and others take weeks or months  Seeds can not germinate without the right environmental conditions  Begins when seed tissue absorbs water causing the seed coat to break open  Energy is released from the stored food to help it grow

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