# Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water Density - __________________________________ __________________________________ Density - __________________________________.

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Oceanography: Properties of Water

Density of Water Density - __________________________________ __________________________________ Density - __________________________________ __________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______ The equation for density is: D = ______ A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m v

In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________. In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________. As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________. As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________. increases decreases increases

_______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________. _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________. Gasliquid increases

_______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492) _______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492) Solid less crystal lattice **The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm 3 and the density of solid water is.92 g/cm 3

This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth. This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth. different important

Polarity of Water Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge. Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge. oxygen - + + hydrogen polar + positive - negative

The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point. The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point. Hydrogen sticky

Water freezes at _________ Water freezes at _________ Water boils at ___________ Liquid water exists between __________ Liquid water exists between __________ This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth. This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth. 0° C 100° C 0°-100° C different important

Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________. Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________. ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil. ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil. – When ions are dissolved in water the boiling point ___________________ and the freezing point __________________ polarity ions Increases (~100.3°) Decreases (~-2°)

Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances? 1. It is the only polar molecule known 2. It expands when turning into a solid 3. Its molecules get closer together when it condenses

Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up? 1. All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds 2. All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds 3. It is very dense 4. It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land

Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows? 1. It keeps the snow from falling on the streets 2. It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature 3. It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature

Oceanography: Properties of Ocean Water

Average Depth of Ocean vs. Average Elevation of Land (Draw What You See…)

Properties of Ocean Water _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land. _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land. Five Oceans Five Oceans1.2.3.4.5. > 70 four times Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic Southern (Antarctic)

Components of Seawater The most common dissolved solids in seawater are: Sodium Chloride Sodium Chloride  Magnesium Sulfate  Calcium Sulfate Na + Cl - Mg 2+ SO 4 2- Ca 2+ SO 4 2-

Components of Seawater Some other ions that are found in seawater are: Carbonate CO 3 - (builds shells) Carbonate CO 3 - (builds shells) Gold Au+ Gold Au+ Uranium U+ Uranium U+ Bromine Br- Bromine Br-

Components of Seawater The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________ The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________ Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean chloride, Cl- CO 3 - carbon

Salinity of Seawater ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water. ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water. CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth Salinity Solids (salts)

Average Salinity of Seawater The average salinity of seawater is _______________. –This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water. –_________: parts per thousand –_________: parts per hundred (percentage) 35 o/oo 35 1000 o/oo o/o

What is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean? (Part over whole) (Part over whole) _______ x 100 = % Because ______ % is an average it can vary: Because ______ % is an average it can vary: – _______________ stay close to the average salinity. –_________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity. 35 1000 3.5 Deep Waters Surface Waters 3.5

Examples of variations at the upper (surface) levels of water

Measuring Salinity The two ways to measure salinity: The two ways to measure salinity:1.2. Which way is more efficient? _____________________. Which way is more efficient? _____________________. Evaporation Conductivity

Measuring Salinity –It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________. –Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________. temperature ocean currents density

Changes in Density TemperatureDensity WARMLOW COLDHIGH

SalinityDensity Low (not a lot of salts) LOW High (a lot of salts) HIGH

What Percentage Of The Earth’s Surface Is Ocean? 1. 70% 2. 30% 3. 90% 4. 50% 5. 1% 6. 100%

What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater? 1. Gold 2. Uranium 3. Sodium Chloride 4. Magnesium Sulfate

What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans? 1. 3.5% 2. 35 parts per 1000 3. 35% 4. 1 and 2 5. 1, 2, and 3

Which Part Of The Ocean Has A More Stable Salinity? 1. Shallow Water 2. Deep Water

What Drives Surface Currents? 1. Fish Swimming 2. Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature 3. Wind

What Drives Density Currents? 1. Fish Swimming 2. Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature 3. Wind

What Is The Least Dense Water? 1. Hot, Fresh Water 2. Cold, Fresh Water 3. Room Temperature Fresh Water 4. Room Temperature Salt Water 5. Cold, Salty Water 6. Hot, Salty Water

What Is The Most Dense Water? 1. Hot, Fresh Water 2. Cold, Fresh Water 3. Room Temperature Fresh Water 4. Room Temperature Salt Water 5. Cold, Salty Water 6. Hot, Salty Water

Demonstration Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in. Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.

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