Presentation on theme: "20 th Century Independence Movements in Africa and Asia."— Presentation transcript:
20 th Century Independence Movements in Africa and Asia
African Independence Movements What motivated African Independence Movements? 1.The United Nations Charter gave the right to self-determination (self- rule). 2.Many African nations fought back against colonial rule after WWII because of long-standing resentment. The above led to loss of African colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal.
Examples of African Independence Movements West Africa (ex. Ghana)—Peaceful transition Algeria—War for Independence from France Kenya (Britain)—Violent struggle under leadership of Kenyatta South Africa—Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black President of the Republic of South Africa.
Jomo Kenyatta Kenyan revolutionary who led the struggle for independence against the British. Became the first president of Kenya (1963) Distanced himself from policy of the Mau Mau, a group of Kenyan rebels who fought violently against the British from 1952 to 1960.
Nelson Mandela The first black president of South Africa (1994- 1999) Campaigned to reform the accepted practice of apartheid (a system of legalized racial segregation of white and black South Africans between 1948 and 1994). http://www.history.com/topics/nelson-mandela/videos
South Asian Independence India wins independence from the British in 1947. Today is the world’s largest democratic nation. Pakistan (former West Pakistan)– carved out of northwestern India in 1947 Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)- becomes independent in 1971 Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)- wins independence from the British in 1948.
Mohandas Gandhi Led the independence movement against the British in India. This movement led to independence from the British in 1947. Most closely associated with the use of civil disobedience and passive resistance to gain the attention of the world.
Jawaharlal Nehru A major figure in the Indian independence movement against the British The first Prime Minister of independent India (1947). Helped establish the 1950 Constitution that aimed to prohibit caste discrimination.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah A Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League. The league’s goal was to create a separate state for Muslims. This separate state, that became the country of Pakistan, was attained in 1947. Represented Pakistan as its first Governor-General
Ho Chi Minh A Vietnamese revolutionary, who became the first leader of North Vietnam (1946– 1969). Led the independence movement against the French from 1941 onward, establishing the communist- governed North Vietnam in 1945. Led the North Vietnamese against the South Vietnamese and U.S. in the Vietnam War.