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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART C 5 The Axial Skeleton

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location  There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs  Seven cervical vertebrae are in the neck  Twelve thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region  Five lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones  Sacrum  Coccyx

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 5.14

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cervical Vertebrae  First seven vertebrae  First two, atlas and axis, are different  C1-Atlas  No body  Transverse process has large notch for occipital condyles so you can nod yes  C2-Axis  Pivot for rotation of atlas  Large upright process called the dens acts as pivot point so can shake head no

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18a

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cervical Vertebrae  C3-C7  Smallest and lightest vertebrae  Large vertebral arch  Supports only the weight of head so can be small and light

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18b

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thoracic Vertebrae  T1-T12  Larger than cervical vertebrae  Only vertebrae to articulate with ribs  Compression and dislocation fractures are common

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18c

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lumbar  L1 to L5  Are the sturdiest vertebrae  Bear most of the weight  Lower back aches common

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18d

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sacrum and Coccys  Sacrum  5 vertebrae fused together, usually by age 25  Muscles of thigh connect here  Protection for reproductive, digestive, excretory organs  Coccys or tailbone  Fusion of 3 to 5 irregular vertebrae  Most start fusing by age 26

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 5.19

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Typical Vertebrae  Body or Centrum- bony structure or disc  Vertebral Arch- formed by laminae (posterior) and pedicle (anterior)  Vertebral Foramen- hole for spinal cord  Transverse Proces- stick out on side for muscles to connect  Spinous Process- can feel in your back  Intervertebral discs- made of fibrocartilage  Acts as cushion and shock absorber  Can become herniated (or slipped)

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Typical Vertebrae, Superior View Figure 5.17

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spina Bifida  Laminae fail to unite  Spinal cord is outside the vertebrae  Can be caused by lack of folic acid during pregnancy

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  The spine has a normal curvature  Primary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions  Present from birth  Secondary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions  Develop after birth

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Development of Spinal Curves

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abnormal Spinal Curvatures  Lordosis or Swayback  Accentuated lumbar curve  Frequently seen during pregnancy  Kyphosis or Hunchback  Abnormal increase in thoracic curve  Seen in chronic osteoporosis and arthritis  Called Scheuermann’s disease when develops in children

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abnormal Spinal Curvatures  Scoliosis  Abnormal side to side curvature  Relatively common in adolescence  Usually treated with Milwaukee brace worn on upper body  Severe cases require surgery

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 5.16

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Bony Thorax  Forms a cage to protect major organs  Consists of three parts  Sternum  Ribs  True ribs (pairs 1–7)  False ribs (pairs 8–12)  Floating ribs (pairs 11–12)  Thoracic vertebrae

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Bony Thorax Figure 5.20a

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sternum  Manubrium- triangle portion  Jugular notch-  Sternal angle  Body- middle part  Xiphoid Process  Can be broken off by strong impact or pressure  Sternum is used to obtain samples of blood- forming hematopoetic tissue

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ribs  12 pairs of ribs  True Ribs (1-7)  Attach directly to the sternum  False Ribs (8-12)  Attach indirectly to sternum or not attached at all  Floating Ribs (pair 11 and 12)  Don’t attach to sternum

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilage  Costal Cartilage- strip of hyaline cartilage that attaches ribs to sternum  Intercostal Cartilage- cartilage between the ribs


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