2 Nonrenewable Resource Takes millions of years to form and accumulateFuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are nonrenewable resourcesNonrenewable metals include iron, copper, uranium, and goldFun Fact: 6% of the world’s population lives in the US, but we use 30% of the world’s annual production of mineral and energy resources
3 Fossil FuelsA fossil fuel is any hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energyFossil Fuels include coal, oil and natural gas
4 Fossil Fuel: CoalCoal forms when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of yearsCoal goes through 4 stages of development:Peat, partially decayed plant materialPeat becomes lignite (brown coal), a sedimentary rockLignite becomes bituminous coal (soft coal), a sedimentary rockBituminous coal becomes anthracite (hard coal), a metamorphic rock
5 Fossil Fuel: Coal continued… Even though coal is abundant, the recovery and use present problemsSurface mining scars the landUnderground mining has costly health problems and can cause deathBurning coal creates air pollution, that can lead to acid rain
6 Fossil Fuel: Oil and Natural Gas Oil (petroleum) and natural gas form from the remains of plants and animals that were buried underwaterOil formation begins when large amounts of plant and animal remains become buried in ocean floor sediments, protecting the remains from decay and oxidationOver millions of years, chemical reactions transform the organic remains into the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
7 A drill punctures rock, pressure is released, the oil and gas move toward the drill hole. A pump lifts the petroleum out.
8 Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission uses uranium to create energy In nuclear fission, the nuclei of heavy atoms, such as uranium-235, are bombarded with neutronsThe uranium nuclei split into smaller nuclei and emit neutrons and heat energyNuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource, because once the uranium is used, it is gone