Verbals Definition: A word that is formed from a verb but functions as a different part of speech. Verbals can function as nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.
Parts of Speech Review Noun: a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun can be the subject or object (direct, indirect, object of a preposition) in a sentence. o Examples: o principal (person) The principal screamed. (subject) o Virginia (place) Many people visit Virginia year- round. (dir. ob.) o dog (thing) We gave the dog some treats. (indirect object) o happiness (idea) Her idea of happiness is a warm puppy. (object of preposition)
Parts of speech Review Adjectives: Words that modify nouns. o Examples: o tall, funny, broken, favorite, lovely
Parts of speech Review Verbs: Words that show action or state of being. o Examples: Action words: jump, think, kick, follow State of being words: am, are, be, been, being, is, was, were
Parts of Speech Review Adverbs: Words that modify verb, adjectives, or other adverbs. These words answer the following questions: where?, when?, how?, to what extent? o Examples: Where?: there, here, inside, outside When?: now, never, tomorrow, yesterday How?: slowly, quietly, skillfully, To what extent?: very, much, so, quite
Types of verbals There are 3 different types of verbals. o Gerund o Participle o Infinitive Each type of verbal may function as just one part of speech or multiple parts of speech.
Gerund Definition: A verbal that ends with –ing and functions as a noun. o Example: Skiing is my favorite winter sport. Skiing is functioning as the subject of the sentence.
Gerunds in context I like to sing while cooking. o cooking Sprinting is my favorite thing to practice when I am running. o sprinting While I am relaxing at the beach, I enjoy reading. o reading
Participle Definition: A verbal that functions as an adjective. There are two types of participles: past and present. o Present participles end in –ing. o Past participles usually end with –ed or –en. o Examples: the flying fish (present participle) the broken window (past participle)
Participles in context There is a house in New Orleans they call The Rising Sun. o rising While I was cooking, I almost burned myself with the boiling water. o Boiling Totally confused, he walked away from the wrecked car. o wrecked After drinking the spoiled milk, he was rushed to the doctor’s office. o spoiled
Infinitives Definition: A verbal which consists of the word to plus a verb in its simplest form. o Infinitives can function as different parts of speech which include noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. o Don’t confuse infinitives with prepositional phrases. I want to graduate on time (infinitive) I went to the store yesterday. (prepositional phrase)
Infinitives in Context To wait for the movie seemed foolish to him. o to wait Everyone wanted to go to the movies. o to go I have a paper to write before I go to the football game. o to write His ambition is to fly solo to Antarctica. o to fly