2 Learning OutcomesDefine some concepts of medication and medication administration.Explain some factors affecting of medication action.Define the parts and types of medication order.Discuss your responsibilities regarding drug administration.
3 MedicationA Drug isAny substance that alters physiologic function, with the potential of affecting health.A Medication isa drug administered for itstherapeutic effects.
4 Definitions …conA Medication is A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, relief, or prevention of health alteration. Thus all drugs are medications but not all medications are drugs
5 Pharmacological Concepts Drug NamesGeneric: becomes the official name listed in publications and is the name generally used throughout the drug’s useChemical: chemicals that make up drugBrand/Trade: the name under which a manufacturer markets a med; usually short and easy to rememberMany companies produce the same med so similarities in trade names are often confusing
6 Factors Affecting Medication Action DevelopmentalGenderCultural, ethnic, and geneticDietEnvironmentPsychologiclIllness and diseaseTime of administration
7 Con….Developmental factors. The nurse needs to be aware of developmental factors. Pregnant women must be careful about taking medications, especially in the first trimester, because of the possible adverse effects on the fetus. Infants usually require smaller doses because of their body size and the immaturity of their organs.
8 Con…Older adults have different responses to medications due to physiologic changes that accompany aging and because they may be prescribed multiple drugs and incompatibilities may occur.
9 Con…Gender differences in medication action are chiefly related to the distribution of body fat and fluid and hormonal differences. In addition, most research studies on medications have been done on men.genetic variations, a client’s response to drugs is also influenced by genetic variations such as size and body composition (pharmacogenetics).
10 Con…Ethnopharmacology is the study of the effects of ethnicity on response to prescribed medications. Cultural factors and practices (values and beliefs) can also affect a drug’s action; for example, an herbal remedy may speed up or slow down the metabolism of certain drugs (see Culturally Competent Care).
11 Con…The diet may contain nutrients that can interact with medications and increase or decrease action.It is important to consider the effects of a drug in the context of the client’s personality, milieu (surroundings ), and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, noise).
12 Con…Psychologic factors, such as a client’s expectations about what a drug can do, can affect the response to the medication.Illness and disease can affect how a client responds to a medication. For example, aspirin can reduce body temperature of a feverish client but has no effect on body temperature of a client without a fever.
13 Con…Time of administration is important because medications are absorbed more quickly if the stomach is empty; however, some medications irritate the gastrointestinal tract and are given after a meal.
14 Definition of Medication Administration This is the process of giving out medication to the patient in order to treat or prevent disease or complication.
15 Definition of Prescription Written directions for the preparation and administration of a medication.
16 Parts of a Medication Order Full name of the clientDate and time the order writtenName of drug to be administeredDosageFrequency of administrationRoute of administrationSignature of person writing the order
17 Types of Medication Orders and Examples Stat orderDemerol 100 mg IM statSingle orderSeconal 100 mg hs before surgeryStanding orderMultivitamin 1 capsule po dailyDemerol 100 mg IM q 4 h x 5 daysprn orderAmphojel 15 mL prn
18 Con…A stat order indicates that the medication is to be given immediately and only once (e.g., Demerol 100 mg IM stat).The single order or one-time order is for medication to be given once at a specified time (e.g., Seconal 100 mg hs before surgery).
19 Con…The standing order may or may not have a termination date, may be carried out indefinitely (e.g., multiple vitamins daily) until an order is written to cancel it, or may be carried out for a specified number of days (e.g., Demerol 100 mg IM q4h × 5 days).A prn order or as-needed order permits the nurse to give a medication when, in the nurse’s judgment, the client requires it (e.g., Amphojel 15 mL prn).
20 Nursing Responsibilities for administering drugs ( 8 points ) Assessment of patient and clear understanding of why the patient is receiving a particular medication.Ensuring the five rights: right dose of right medication is administered to the right patient via the right route at the right time .
21 Con…Preparing the medication to be administered (i.e., checking labels, preparing injections, observing proper asepsis techniques with needles and syringes).Accurate dosage calculations.Administration of the medication(proper injection techniques, aids to help swallowing, topical methods).
22 Con…Monitoring the patient's reaction and evaluating the patient's response.Documentation of the medications given.Educating the patient regarding his or her medications and medication regimen.