3 What kinds of cells make up… A humanA bacteriaAn antE. coliA banannaEukaryoteProkaryote
4 What kinds of cells would have… A chloroplast70s RibosomesA plasma membraneMitochondriaReproduce by binary fissionCell wall (any kind)Plant cellProkaryote (bacteria)Every kind of cell!Every eukaryoteProkaryote, Plant cell, fungi cell
5 Make a drawing of a prokaryote cell and label the following structures: cell wall, pili, flagella, and plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm that contains 70S ribosomes and a nucleoid with naked DNA..
6 Cell Membrane Nucleoid Flagella Cytoplasm Cell Wall Pili 70S Ribosomes Made out of phospholipids; controls what enters and leaves cellNucleoidRegion where naked DNA can be found; may have plasmids (loops of “extra” DNA, which can introduce new genes)FlagellaWhip like; allows the cell to moveCytoplasmJelly-like substanceCell WallMade out of peptidoglycan (mesh of amino acids and sugars)PiliAllows cells to connect and exchange DNA (sexual reproduction)70S Ribosomesmake protein
7 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Make a drawing of a eukaryotic plant cell and label the following structures: plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm that contains 80S ribosomes and a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, vacuole, and cell wall.Plasma membraneMitochondriaFree 80S ribosomesLysosomesCytoplasmNucleusGolgi apparatusRough Endoplasmic Reticulum
8 Endoplasmic Reticulum NucleusDNA in a membraneMitochondriaMakes energy by doing cellular respirationVacuoleLarge compartment for storage of water or other molecules80S RibosomesThey make protein; sometimes attached to ERCytoplasmJelly-like substanceChloroplastMakes glucose by doing photosynthesisEndoplasmic ReticulumTransports molecules; can have ribosomes attached (rough) or none (smooth)Cell WallIn plant cells, it is made out of cellulose (a carbohydrate)In fungi, it is made out of chitin (a carbohydrate)Animal cells don’t have oneGolgi ComplexMakes vesicles for molecules to enter or leave the cell
9 Explain why there is a limit to the size of a cell. Cells are limited by a surface-to-volume ratio. This is because all areas of the cell need to be close enough to the surface area to efficiently exchange nutrients and wastes. Thus, cells must stay small to survive.
10 What is a stem cell?Describe how they might be useful in the treatment of a particular disease.A stem cell is a cell that has the ability to differentiate, becoming other types of cells in the body. They can replace any damaged tissues in the body.Replace retina tissue to cure failing sight (Stargardt’s disease)Replace damaged heart tissue from a heart attackReplace killed bone marrow (leukemia)
11 A cell is 10 µm across. A student draws it as 250mm wide A cell is 10 µm across. A student draws it as 250mm wide. What is the magnification?You don’t have to draw it, but you can if that helps!Measured lengthActual size =Magnification250 mm250,000 µmSolve for x10 µm =10 µm =xx25,000 times magnifiedX= 25000Convert to the same units before you divide!1000 µm250 mmx= 250,000 µm1 mm
12 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts! What 2 organelles are believed to have originated as a result of the Endosymbiotic Theory?Mitochondria and Chloroplasts!
13 Identify the structures in this false-colored microscopic image of a human liver cell 2137645
14 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Identify the structures in this false-colored microscopic image of a human liver cell2. Mitochondria3. Ribosomes(free)1. Cytoplasm7. Plasmamembrane6. Lysosome4. Nucleus5. Endoplasmic Reticulum(rough)
15 Identify the structures in these false-colored microscopic images 314562
16 Identify the structures in these false-colored microscopic images 3. Cell membrane4. Cytoplasm(the darker spheres are ribosomes)1. Cell wall5. Pili6. Flagella2. Nucleoid region(where DNA is located)
17 40 x 10 = 400 times magnification A microscope has the objective lenses of 4x, 10x, and 40x. The ocular eye piece has a magnification of 10x. What is the maximum magnification of this microscope?40 x 10 = 400 times magnificationHere is a human hair magnified 400 times.
18 What could be 3 pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiotic theory? Mitochondria / chloroplasts have…a double membraneTheir own DNA and ribosomesAre the same size and bacteriaReproduce via binary fission when their cell divides
19 It’s a plant cell. (it’s also a eukaryote because it has organelles) What kind of cell is this? What are 3 reasons you know that?It’s a plant cell. (it’s also a eukaryote because it has organelles)It has a large vacuoleIt has chloroplastsIt has a cell wall
20 Eukaryotes Both Prokaryotes Compare and contrast eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a Venn diagram.EukaryotesBothProkaryotes
21 Eukaryotes Both Prokaryotes Compare and contrast eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a Venn diagram.EukaryotesBothProkaryotesLarge and more complexHave a cell membrane and cytoplasmSmall and simpleHas a nucleus and organellesReproduce through asexual cell divisionLacks a nucleus and lacks organellesDNA is linear and in many pieces (chromosomes)Have ribosomes (but they are different)DNA is circular and in one piece (usually)Cells divide through mitosisCells divide through binary fissionHave 80s ribosomesHave 70s ribosomesAttaches and transfers DNA through pili
22 Compare and contrast plant and animal cells in a Venn diagram. BothAnimal
23 Compare and contrast plant and animal cells in a Venn diagram. BothAnimalHave chloroplastsAre eukaryotesOften are high in lysosomesHas a plant cell wallHave other organelles in common (mitochondria, ER, golgi bodies…)Can have great ability to moveHas a large vacuoleAre similar in sizeNo / very limited ability to moveCells asexually reproduce through mitosis
24 A sperm cell has a tail that is 50µm long. A student draws it as 75mm A sperm cell has a tail that is 50µm long. A student draws it as 75mm. What is the magnification?You don’t have to draw it, but you can if that helps!Measured lengthActual size =Magnification75 mm75000 µmSolve for x50 µm =50 µm =xx1500 x magnifiedX= 1500Convert to the same units before you divide!1000 µm75 mmx= µm1 mm
25 1. Which focus knob should you use under the low magnification objective lens? Coarse focus knob (it changes the focus a lot)2. The image appears too dark. What should you do?The diaphragm controls how much light passes through the slide3. The image appears too dark. What should you do?The diaphragm controls how much light passes through the slide. Also, make sure the light is on!