2 Method of convertion 3 ways of turning biomass into fuel: Thermal ChemicalBiochemical
3 EthanolEthanol is a corn alcohol that can be used to power cars or engines that make electricity.
4 GasificationWhen Biomass is heated up but not burned it will release a gas that can be used similarly to natural gas.The town of Güssing, Austria gets its electricity from a gasification plant.
5 Thermal GasificationIn Güssing, they make an alternative fuel from wood. The gas from the wood fuels a Jenbacher engine that produces electricity. The “by-product” heat is used to produce warm water for the district heating system. The plant is running at about 82-85% efficiency.
7 Biodiesel Any diesel engine can be run on biodiesel. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel source which comes from byproducts such as soybean oil, other natural oils, and greases, it is an advanced biofuel. It must meet FDA and quality specifications to be legal
8 Biodiesel production process When glycerin is separated from the oils, what is left behind is methyl esters or biodiesel.This is called transesterification.
9 Brazil’s Chemical Conversion In Brazil, they do not actually use gasoline, but a by-product of processing sugar cane which creates a gas that can fuel cars.
10 Biochemical Conversion Biochemical conversion uses organisms to break down biomass using anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and composting.
11 Algae BiofuelIn coal burning power plants, they take the CO2 that would have been released into the atmosphere and use it to feed algae in large tanks. This algae can then be fermented and turned into biofuel.
12 Garbage Power PlantsLandfills, after they have been capped, are tapped for methane fuel which can be sent to a power plant where it can be burned and used for energy.
13 Environmental Impactbiomass power represent 1.4% of all power in the US“Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants, in some cases at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural gas.”“Biomass systems can reduce waste energy from 66% to 25% compared to traditional fossil fuels [disputed – discuss], meaning a significantly smaller amount of input material (biomass) is used, therefore having a positive effect on the global environment and use of fuel.”“Forest-based biomass has recently come under fire from a number of environmental organizations, including Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council, for the harmful impacts it can have on forests and the climate.”