Presentation on theme: "Trade in Intermediate Goods and Services"— Presentation transcript:
1 Trade in Intermediate Goods and Services Rainer Lanz, Sébastien Miroudot, Alexandros RagoussisTrade Policy Linkages and Services DivisionOECD Trade and Agriculture DirectorateWPTGS, 18 November 2009
2 Trade and activities of multinational enterprises: Programme of work of the OECD Trade Committee “Vertical Trade, Trade Costs and FDI” (TAD/TC/WP(2008)23/FINAL)“Trade in Intermediate Goods and Services” (TAD/TC/WP(2009)1/FINAL)Next year:Intra-firm trade and investmentTrade in tasksNext Programme of Work and Budget ( ): analysis of trade flows in value-added?
3 Trade in intermediate goods and services Objectives of the study:To assess trade flows of intermediate goods and services among OECD countries and with their main trade partnersTo analyse the determinants of trade in intermediate inputsTo look at the relationship between productivity and trade in intermediates at the industry level
4 Intermediate goods in trade data OECD International Trade by Commodity Statistics (ITCS) databaseUN Broad Economic Categories (BEC) classificationBased on the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev. 3)Grouping of commodities according to main end use:capital goodsintermediate goodsconsumption goodsnot classified (motor spirit, passenger motor cars, goods n.e.s.)
5 Input-Output (I-O) Tables I-O tables present in matrix format the supply side and the demand side of an economyOECD I-O database 2009 edition39 countries, 48 industries (aggregated to 29)Year coverage: 1995, 2000 and 2005 (ideally)Identification of both the industry of origin and using industryAllows distributing bilateral trade over using industries kEstimation of bilateral imports of intermediate services
6 Combining trade data with I-O tables Imports of intermediate inputs p from country j by industry k in country i:mijpt – bilateral imports of inputs p ( BEC trade data)αipkt - share of imported inputs p used by industry k ( I-O tables)Five dimensions: importer i, exporter j, industry of origin p, using industry k and year t
7 Share of intermediate to total trade Intermediate goods and services dominate trade flowsShare in total trade has remained fairly constant over time
8 Intra- and inter-regional imports of intermediate goods (Billion USD, 2006)
9 Share of regions in world intermediate goods imports (2006)
10 Econometric analysis Gravity regressions In comparison to imports for final consumption, imports of intermediates aremore sensitive to trade costsless attracted by bilateral market sizeThe activity of multinational enterprises impacts positively imports of intermediate inputsProduction function regressionsA higher use of foreign inputs increases the productivity of domestic industries
11 Main policy conclusions of the analysis Trade in intermediates is more sensitive to trade barriers.Policies aiming at fully benefiting from international production networks should reach a higher degree of trade liberalisation. But tariff escalation should be avoided.Trade in intermediates has an important regional dimension.Trade in intermediates depends less on the size of the market and on the "home bias" of consumers.This represents a chance for emerging economies and small economies that can specialise in the production of inputs.