Today’s Vocabulary Torah – Jewish Bible; first 5 books of the Old Testament. Abraham – “Father” of the Hebrews and Judaism. Monotheism – Belief in only one god. Messiah – A king sent by God to that would lead the Jews to their freedom.
Origin of Judaism Abraham became the founder of Judaism when he made a covenant (agreement) with Yahweh (God). Abraham would obey only Yahweh. Monotheistic Yahweh would protect Abraham and lead him to the promise land. The promise land was in Canaan (Palestine). To obey Yahweh, the Hebrews read the Torah.
Moses & Jewish Laws Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery. Moses spoke with Yahweh and receive the 10 Commandments. – Civil and religious law of the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. After wandering for 40 years, the Hebrews reached the promise land. – Divided into 12 tribes. Would come together in times of crisis. Prophets interpreted the Torah. – Emphasized equality of all people. – Goal was to live a moral life. – Believed that the Messiah has yet to come.
The Kingdom of Israel Judaism was named after the tribe of Judah. Kings of Israel: – Saul – Drove out the Philistines. – David United the 12 tribes and established Jerusalem as the capital. – Solomon Built a great temple to house the Ark of the Covenant and great royal palace. B/c of high taxes and forced labor, the kingdom divides into 2 separate parts: – Israel and Judah
Israel Falls Israel and Judah began paying tribute to Assyria. – The Assyrians still conquer Israel. The Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, conquers Judah. Destroys Solomon’s temple and forces the Israelites into exile. King Cyrus of Persia conquers Babylonian and allows exiled Jews to return to Jerusalem. Others did not return to Jerusalem, but moved to different parts of the world. Diaspora
The Life & Teachings of Jesus Rome took control of Judea. – Jews lead rebellions and waited for their Messiah to restore the kingdom of the Jews. Jesus emphasized: – God’s personal relationship to all. – Importance of love for all. – Salvation and eternal life for believers who repented for their sins. Jesus’ message is found in the Gospels. – First 4 books of the New Testament.
Jesus & Rome Jesus’ teaching attracted a large following of all types of people and they began to call him the Messiah. Rome saw Jesus as a threat and had him crucified. – After 3 days he rose from the dead and continued to spread his message. – Later he ascended into heaven. The 12 apostles continued to spread the message of Jesus.
Christianity Spreads The Roman time period of Pax Romana allowed Christianity to spread. – Common languages allowed the message to be easily understood. – Paul preached that Jesus was the son of God who died for people’s sins. Welcomed all converts. Rome continues to persecute Christians. – Those who die are seen as martyrs.
The Early Church Christianity grew b/c it: – Embraced all people. – Gave hope to the powerless. – Offered a personal relationship with a loving God. – Promised eternal life after death. Emperor Constantine of Rome ended the persecution of Christians. – Edict of Milan allowed for religious freedom. The Church split into different levels of the clergy: – Priest – Bishop – Pope
Hierarchy of the Christian Clergy PopeBishopPriest BishopPriest
A World Religion New Testament was added to the Bible to dissolve disagreements about Christian beliefs. The Nicene Creed defined the basic beliefs of the Church. Augustine taught: – Humans need the grace of God to be saved. – Could not receive God’s grace unless you belong to a Church and receive the sacraments. – Wrote The City of God.
Reflection Explain the main beliefs of Judaism and Christianity.