# Bar-Ilan University, Israel

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Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Metacognition and Math Education in Innovation-Driven Societies: What’s New? Zemira R. Mevarech Bracha Kramarski Bar-Ilan University, Israel OECD, Paris, 2012

Three Warm-up Questions
1. Why teach mathematics in innovation-driven societies? The answers are self-evident: - To develop quantitatively literate citizens - To enhance students’ ability to solve problems - To encourage logical thinking 2. Does the standard school mathematics curriculum advance these goals? The answer is – Yes, to a partial extent: - basic skills are necessary, though not sufficient - It does not prepare students to solve complex, unfamiliar, non- routine problems - It is irrelevant for advancing math creativity, critical thinking, and communications - In no way does it train students to regulate problem-solving processes 3. What types of problem solving are useful for innovation-driven societies?

Standard, routine, textbook problems vs.
Problem Solving for Innovation-Driven Societies: What Types of Problems are Useful? Standard, routine, textbook problems vs. Complex, Unfamiliar, Non-routine (CUN) problems Authentic problems Large variability in CUN problems: What is complex to one student, is simple to another, etc.

What Skills are useful in Innovation-Driven Societies?
Mathematical problem solving Mathematical reasoning Mathematical creativity and critical thinking Mathematical communications Meta-cognitive skills for regulating the solution of CUN problems

Two Examples: Which is the Cheapest Supermarket?
1. Before Christmas, several supermarkets advertised that they were the cheapest supermarket in town. Your task is to decide which claim was correct. Please give your reasoning and findings. Please prepare a sixty-minute TV show to present your findings. 2. Before Christmas, two supermarkets advertised that they have sales. The prices in the two supermarkets were: Supermarket A – 1kg of meat for \$10 and 1kg of turkey for \$8. Supermarket B – 1kg of meat for \$12 and 1kg of turkey for \$6. The Vincent family decided to buy 3kg of meat and 2kg of turkey. Which supermarket is cheaper?

Is the Supermarket Problem (#1) a CUN math problem?
Is it authentic? Is it a mathematical task even though there are no numbers in the task? Is it a complex task? Is it an unfamiliar task? Is it a non-routine task or is it based on ready made algorithms? Can it advance mathematical reasoning, creativity, critical thinking, or communications? How (if at all) can it create quantitative literate citizens? The progress from traditional to CUN problems requires the application of meta-cognitive processes that regulate cognitive processes

Meta-cognitive Processes for Regulating Cognition
What is meta-cognition all about? The nature of “meta” The “meta-cognitive engine” Does MC develop naturally and without intervention? Teachers rarely emphasize the activation of MC: Why is that? Is meta-cognition teachable? How?

Meta-cognitive Instruction: When, How, and for Whom?
Research shows: Like cognitive strategies, MC needs to be explicitly taught and intensively practice. MC instruction must be embedded in subject content. Learners must be informed of the usefulness of MC activities. MC must be part of interactive learning environments, like: cooperative learning or ICT. MC instruction is necessary at all grade levels: K-12, HE, adults. Veenman (2006); Mevarech and Kramarski (2012)

IMPROVE: MC Instructional Method Theoretical Basis
Cooperative Learning Metacognitive Guidance IMPROVE Feedback-correctives

IMPROVE: MC Instructional Method
Introduce new concepts to whole class Meta-cognitive questioning practice in small groups Practice using MCQ Review use of MCQ Obtain mastery over routine & CUN ps Verification Enrichment and remedial activities

MC Self-Directed Questioning
IMPROVE: MC Self-Directed Questioning Comprehension: What is the problem about? Connection: How is the problem similar to, or different from problems I have already solved? Please explain your reasoning. Strategies: What kinds of strategies are appropriate for solving the problem and why? Please explain your reasoning. Reflection: Does the solution make sense? Can the problem be solved in a different way? Am I stuck? Why?

Findings

IMPROVE Effects Over One Year Math Achievement & Reasoning

IMPROVE & Long Lasting Effects: Immediate & Delayed Post-tests

Which PIZZA is the best offer? Why?
Price for supplements (NIS) Diameter Price per PIZZA (NIS) Type of PIZZA PIZZA BOOM 4.00 15 3.50 Personal PIZZA 7.75 23 6.50 Small 11.00 30 9.50 Medium 14.45 38 12.50 Large SUPPER PIZZA 9.95 8.65 10.95 35 9.65 12.95 40 11.65 MC PIZZA 1.00 25 6.95 1.25

Online Mathematical Literacy Discourse Motivation and Attitudes towards Problem Solving, Reasoning, Communication Motivation: “Online learning aroused my interest in mathematical problem solving” Reasoning: “Online problem solving encouraged me to explain my reasoning” Communication: “ I look forward to my friends’ reactions to my online solutions”

Development of Scientific Literacy
by Group and Time The greatest improvement in general scientific thinking and inquiry skills was among students who received metacognitive guidance in an ALN environment (Figures 1, 2). We found no difference among students in groups which did not receive metacognitive guidance in an ALN environment, and students in groups who received metacognitive guidance in a F2F environment. The least improvement was found among students who participated in a group that did not receive metacognitive guidance in a F2F environment. ALN+Meta > F2F+Meta = ALN > F2F Range 0-15

Impact of IMPROVE at the College

Research shows: IMPROVE advances students’ CUN problem solving without harming students’ abilities to solve “standard” problems. Positive effects were found for K-12, HE, and Professional Development, with or without ICT. Teaching strategies alone is not enough IMPROVE is suitable for all students: both lower and higher achievers. IMPROVE showed similar positive effects in science education. IMPROVE helps to increase motivation, self- confidence, judgment of learning.

Challenges: What next? Evidence-Based Policy Making
International cooperation – don’t reinvent the wheel To be effective teach MC directly and practice it intensively – We know how to do this MC will be effective in the national curriculum Include CUN problems in textbooks, teacher guides, and professional development Pre- and in-service professional development followed by workshops and in-class mentoring

Challenges: What next? Evidence-Based Policy Making (cont.)
ICT: Students find it particularly difficult to apply MC in ICT environments. It is therefore essential to reconstruct these environments by embedding MC in them. Assessment and evaluation – “You teach what you assess” MC pedagogies in OECD countries Teaching for understanding can be achieved by implementing evidence-based MC pedagogies

If you think education is expensive, try ignorance!