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Birth of a Nation. Focus Question To what degree did the Articles of Confederation provide an effective form of government? To what degree did the Articles.

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Presentation on theme: "Birth of a Nation. Focus Question To what degree did the Articles of Confederation provide an effective form of government? To what degree did the Articles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Birth of a Nation

2 Focus Question To what degree did the Articles of Confederation provide an effective form of government? To what degree did the Articles of Confederation provide an effective form of government? – Consider the following: the ideology and goals of the Revolution, economic conditions, foreign relations, Western lands, etc.

3 Articles of Confederation Loose confederation of sovereign states Loose confederation of sovereign states Western land claims delayed ratification Western land claims delayed ratification 7 states had huge western land claims 7 states had huge western land claims Maryland delayed ratification until western claims were given up Maryland delayed ratification until western claims were given up Sale of the lands would provide a source of national revenues Sale of the lands would provide a source of national revenues The United States in 1787

4 Provisions of the Articles 1.States had the power 2.Weak central govt. 3.No power to tax 4.No executive or judicial branch 5.No power to regulate interstate commerce 6.Each state had 1 vote 7.Could declare but could not raise army Advance of settlement to 1790

5 The Land Ordinance of 1785 America now feels that this is their land to settle – Ordinance of 1785 Establishes system for surveying/distributing land Sold to help pay national debt Townships divided into 36 sq. miles or 640 acres for minimum of $1 per acre Income from sale of one section was to go to support public schools ( 1 st ex. Of fed. Aid to education) Still used today

6 Northwest Territory Northwest Ordinance – System by which territories could become states – Chunks of 60,000 people would be granted statehood – Still used today – Guarantees.. Freedom of speech Trial by Jury Forbids slavery north of Ohio River Southerners could cross state lines to reclaim fugitive slaves Ordinances Speed up Expansion – Problems?

7 Land Division in the Northwest Territory

8 Newburgh Conspiracy (1783) -Cause- Soldiers in army were not paid regularly throughout the war -High ranking officers wanted to organize to force states to pay back wages -Washington convinced officers not to attack states -Soldiers got back pay and pensions

9 SHAY’S REBELLION An event that highlighted the weakness of the Central (National) government was Shay’s Rebellion Farmers in western Massachusetts rose up in protest over increased taxes Daniel Shay led 1,200 farmers toward the arsenal in Springfield The event caused alarm throughout the republic 1787

10 WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLE OF CONFEDERATION Congress could not collect taxes Each state had one vote regardless of population No executive branch No national court system Nine of thirteen states needed to agree to pass any law Lacked national unity Weak Central Gov’t

11 ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION America’s first Constitution Established National governments ability to wage war, sign treaties, coin money, run post office Land Ordinance of 1785 – made land parcels small & affordable Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – set requirement for states

12 Annapolis Convention The Annapolis Convention (1786) – James Madison (VA) – purpose- Discuss interstate trade – Only 5 states attend – Alexander Hamilton (NY) – New convention called to revise the Articles

13 CREATING A NEW GOVERNMENT The 55 delegates at the Constitutional Convention realized the need to strengthen the central government Elected George Washington- chairman They soon decided to create an entirely new Constitution instead of amending the Articles Articles were scraped Peaceful overthrow of U.S. govt. “ Compromise”

14 Father of the Constitution James Madison National Principle- national govt. stronger than states Power came from people not states- Popular Sovereignty Federalism Separation of Powers- Baron de Montesquieu Checks and Balances

15 The Virginia Plan Drafted by Madison Edmund Randolph Powerful national government – Impose laws on states – Levy taxes – Regulate commerce Structure – Three branches Single executive National courts Bicameral legislature – Lower house chosen directly by the people – State legislatures nominate candidates for upper house – Lower house elects upper house from these candidates – Representation based on population or financial contributions – Favored by large states

16 The Virginia Plan People elect Lower House [proportioned by population] Upper House [proportioned by population] State Legislatures elects nominate candidates elect

17 The New Jersey Plan William Paterson (NJ) Small states Modify the Articles – Unicameral Congress – Equal representation – New powers to levy taxes and to regulate trade – Multi-person executive

18 The Great Compromise Benjamin Franklin Roger Sherman (CT) – Connecticut Compromise Bicameral legislature – House of Representatives Based on population Directly elected Every tax bill would originate in the House – Senate Each state equally represented Senators selected by the state legislature “Mankind may hereafter, from this unfortunate instance, despair of establishing governments by human wisdom, and leave it to chance, war, and conquest” ~ Benjamin Franklin ~

19 The Great Compromise People elect House of Representatives [proportioned by population] Senate [two senators per state] State Legislatures choose elect

20 Presidential Powers Military commander-in-chief Control foreign policy Veto power over legislation Enforce the law

21 The Executive Chosen by legislature or independently elected? – Both! – Electoral College Electors chosen by the states Electors would cast the vote based on the popular vote Safety system if people made a mistake House of Representatives chooses Vice President – Runner-up in electoral college – Tie: Senate chooses Issues: – Single or multiple? – How is he to be chosen? Single executive – Alexander Hamilton – George Washington “The British government forms the best model the world has ever produced.” ~ Alexander Hamilton ~







28 THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE Next difficult issue: Slavery South- Slaves should count as parts of population North- slaves should not count North- If slaves count, should also count for tax purposes Compromise- Every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons

29 Commerce Compromises Southern fears – If national government controls trade, it can Ban slave trade Tax exports Compromise – Exports cannot be taxed – Slave trade cannot be banned for 20 years North very willing to compromise – Necessity – Slavery a dying institution

30 RATIFYING THE CONSTITUTION The Constitutional Convention adjourned in September of 1787 Nine of thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution Supporters of the Constitution were Federalists. Those opposed were Anti-Federalist

31 FEDERALIST Led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, Federalist believed that while the Constitution was not perfect, it was far superior to the Articles of Confederation They favored a strong central government James Madison “Father of the Constitution”

32 The Federalist Papers New York – Gov. George Clinton 85 essays to support Constitution Publius – Alexander Hamilton – James Madison – John Jay Federalist 10: – Control of factions – “Pluralism” Federalist 51: – Separation of powers Chart Map “The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States” ~ Federalist 10 ~ “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition.” ~ Federalist 51 ~

33 ANTI-FEDERALIST The Anti-Federalist view was that the Constitution did not guarantee the rights of the people of the states Led by Patrick Henry, George Mason, and Richard Henry Lee, the Anti- Federalists wanted a Bill of Rights to off-set the strong central government Lee penned his views in the widely read, Letters from the Federal Farmers

34 ADOPTION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS To satisfy the States-Rights advocates, a Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to guarantee individual rights The Bill of Rights was ratified in December of 1791- three years after the Constitution was ratified First Ten Amendments

35 OLDEST LIVING CONSTITUTION The U.S. Constitution is the oldest written national constitution in the world Constitution- Supreme Law of the Land Elastic Clause key to flexibility Also ability to change, or “amend” the Constitution helps preserve it 27 Amendments have been added

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