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**Newton's First Law of Motion Grade 6 Unit 1 : Lesson #6**

SI Units Grade 6 Unit 1 : Lesson #6 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

What you’ll learn Vocabulary: SI Meter Mass Kilogram Kelvin Rate Understand the purpose of SI. Identify the SI units of length, mass, volume, temperature, time, and rate. Why it is important? The SI system is used all around the world to measure quantities in the exact same as all other students do. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.

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**The International System**

Newton's First Law of Motion The International System If people in every country used different measuring systems, it would create a lot of confusion while sharing data and ideas. To avoid this complication, scientists established the International System of Units, or SI, in 1960 as the accepted system for measurement. The SI was designed to provide a worldwide standard of physical measurement for science, industry, and commerce. My house is just 10 yards away Can you tell me in meters? I don’t know how much is a yard? 3 3 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 3

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

SI unit The SI units are related by multiples of ten. By multiplying by a power of 10, any SI unit can be converted to a larger or a smaller SI unit. For example: To express 1 Kilogram in terms of grams, we multiply by 1000. The new unit is renamed by changing the prefix. One millionth of a meter is one micro-meter. One kilogram is equal to one thousand grams. SI Prefixes Prefix Multiplier Giga- 1,000,000,000 Mega- 1,000,000 Kilo- 1,000 Hecto- 100 Deka- 10 [unit] 1 Deci- 0.1 Centi- 0.01 Milli- 0.001 Micro- Nano- SI stands for Le Syste`me International d’Unites, which is a French term for International System of units. 4 4 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 4

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**Try this! Why was SI established?**

Answer: SI was established to provide a worldwide standard of physical measurement for science, industry, and commerce. Answer: SI was established to provide a worldwide standard of physical measurement for science, industry, and commerce. 5 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 5

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

SI base units Some common objects and their measurements in SI units is shown below in the table: SI Base units Quantity Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Temperature kelvin K Time second s Electric current ampere A Amount of substance Mole mol Intensity of light candela cd 6 6 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 6

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**The height of the bank is 100 meters**

Length The distance between two points is defined as length. Measurement of length using different tools can describe a range of things such as the distance between any two planets, thickness of a thin wire etc. The meter (m) is the SI unit of length. One meter is about the size of a baseball bat. For example: The size of a room or dimensions of a building are measured in meters. Smaller objects can be measured in centimeters (cm) or millimeters (mm). The length of a small book or a pencil can be measured in centimeters. To measure the length of small things such as blood cells, or bacteria, scientists use micrometers. The height of the bank is 100 meters 7 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 7

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Long distances The measure long distances, such as the distance between Earth and Mars or the distance traveled by a migrating bird, we use kilometers. Distance between New York and Los Angeles is 4,501 km 8 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 8

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**Try this! Long distances are usually expressed in terms of __________**

Answer: kilometers Answer: kilometers 9 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 9

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Volume Volume is the amount of space an object occupies. The SI unit of volume is cubic meter (m3). Smaller volumes can be measured with cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc). The volume of a square or rectangular object, such as a brick, or a compact disc case can be found by measuring their length, width, and height and multiplying them together. A liter is a measurement of liquid volume. A cube of 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm holds 1 liter (1,000 cm3) of water. A cube 1 cm on a side holds 1 ml (1 cm3) of water. BRICK Volume of a square or rectangle = length x width x height 10 cm 1 liter 10 10 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 10

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Volume by immersion To measure the volume of an irregular object, we immerse the object in a known volume of water. The increase in the volume of water will be equal to the volume of the object. The volume of an irregular shaped object like a rock, or a piece of metal can be found in this way. For example: When we add an ice cube to a nearly full glass of water, the water in the glass overflows. Although the volume of water did not increase at all, the water was displaced when the ice cubes were added. This is because the ice cube has volume due to which it takes space. The difference in the volume of water before and after the addition of ice cubes will be equal to the volume of the ice cube added to the glass of water. 11 11 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 11

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**Try this! The cubic meter is the SI unit of what? Volume Weight Mass**

Distance Answer: A Answer: A Reason: The cubic meter is the SI unit of volume. 12 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 12

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**Source: www.sks-science.com/balance-scales-p-939.html**

Newton's First Law of Motion Mass The mass of an object measures the amount of matter in the object. The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg). One liter of water has a mass of 1 kg. Smaller masses are measured in grams (g). One gram is about the mass of a large paper clip. Mass can be determined using a triple beam balance. The balance compares an object with a known mass. When the known standard mass of the slides on the balance is equal to the object on the pan, the beam is said to be balanced. Source: 13 13 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 13

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**Try this! What is the SI unit of mass? kilometer meter liter kilogram**

Answer: D Answer: D Reason: The SI unit of mass is kilogram. 14 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 14

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Weight Weight is a measurement of force. The SI unit for weight is Newton (N). Weight is dependent on gravity, which can change depending on where the object is located. For example: Our weight on other planets would change, even though we would still be the same size and have the same mass. This is because, the gravitational force is different on each planet. We will weigh much less in Mars and more in Jupiter. A person weighing 34 kg on Earth, which is weight of 332 N would weigh 126 N on Mars and 782 N on Jupiter. A spring scale measures the weight of an object by how much a planet’s gravitational force pulls an object. 15 15 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 15

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**Difference between mass and weight**

Newton's First Law of Motion Difference between mass and weight Weight and mass are not the same. The table below shows the differences between mass and weight. Mass Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is a measure of the force of gravity. It is not affected by gravity. It changes with the force of gravity. SI Unit of mass if kilogram (kg) SI unit of weight is Newton (N) 16 16 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 16

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**Try this! What does weight measure?**

Answer: Weight measures the force of gravity on an object. Answer: Weight measures the force of gravity on an object. 17 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 17

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Temperature The temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy, or the energy of motion, of the particles that make up matter. The physical property of temperature is related to how hot or cold an object is. A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature. The two common scales used on thermometers are the Fahrenheit and Celsius. In SI units, temperature is measured in kelvin (K). A 1 Kelvin difference in temperature is the same as 1°C difference in the temperature. However, the two scales do not start at the same point as shown. 18 18 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 18

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**Try this! Which is a temperature scale? Volume Mass Kelvin Mercury**

Answer: C Answer: C Reason: Kelvin is the only temperature scale among all the options. 19 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 19

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Time and Rates An interval between two events is known as Time. The SI unit of time is second (s). Long periods of time are easier to measure in hours (h) although it is not the SI unit of time. For example: An event duration of 3 hours, if expressed in seconds will be 10,800 seconds. A rate is the amount of change of one measurement with respect to time. One such familiar rate is speed, which is the distance traveled in a gives time. The SI unit of speed is meters per second (m/s) although it is commonly expressed in kilometers per hour (km/h). A unit that is changing does not necessarily have to be an SI unit. For example: We can measure the number of buses that pass through an intersection per hour in buses/hr. 20 20 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 20

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Visualization 21 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 21

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Summary The international system of measurement is called SI. It is used throughout the world for communicating data. The SI units are related by multiples of ten. By multiplying by a power of 10, any SI unit can be converted to a larger or a smaller SI unit. The distance between two points is defines as length. The meter (m) is the SI unit of length. 22 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 22

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Summary Volume is the amount of space an object occupies. The SI unit of volume is cubic meter (m3). The mass of an object measures the amount of matter in the object. The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg). Weight is a measurement of force. The SI unit for weight is Newton (N). 23 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 23

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Summary The temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy, or the energy of motion, of the particles that make up matter. In SI units, temperature is measured in kelvin (K). An interval between two events is known as Time. The SI unit of time is second (s). A rate is the amount of change of one measurement with respect to time. 24 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 24

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**Critical thinking activity**

Newton's First Law of Motion Critical thinking activity Why do scientists in the Unites States use SI rather than the English system (feet, pounds, pints etc) for measurements? Notes: The SI system of measurement is understood internationally, while the English system is understood only in a limited number of countries. 25 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 25

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**Assessment 1) How many cubic centimeters are in a cubic meter?**

Newton's First Law of Motion Assessment 1) How many cubic centimeters are in a cubic meter? Answer: There are 1,000,000 cubic centimeters in a cubic meter. Answer: There are 1,000,000 cubic centimeters in a cubic meter. 1 meter= 100 centimeters 1 m * 1m * 1m = 100 cm * 100 cm * 100 cm 1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3 26 26 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 26

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 2) How is a seesaw similar to a pan balance. Answer: When the weights on each side of the seesaw are equal, it is balanced. The same is the case with a pan balance. Answer: When the weights on each side of the seesaw are equal, it is balanced. The same is the case with a pan balance. 27 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 27

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 3) A rectangle has a height of 1.5 m, width of 2.5 m and length of 3.2 m. What is the volume of the rectangle? Answer: The volume of the rectangle is 12 m3 Answer: The volume of the rectangle is 12 m3 Volume=length x width x height = 1.5 x 2.5 x 3.2 = 12 28 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 28

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 4) How would you change a measurement in centimeter to kilometer? Answer: Divide by 100,000 Answer: Divide by 100,000 1 kilometer = 1000 meter 1 meter = 100 centimeter Therefore 1 kilometer = 1000 x 100= 100,000 centimeter. 29 29 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 29

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 5) Which SI unit replaces the pound? Answer: Newton Answer: Newton Reason: Pound is used to measure weight. The SI unit of weight is Newton. 30 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 30

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**Assessment 6) Express 3 hours and 9 minutes in SI units.**

Newton's First Law of Motion Assessment 6) Express 3 hours and 9 minutes in SI units. Answer: seconds (s) Answer: The SI unit of time is second (S) 1 hour = 60 minutes and 1 minute=60 seconds 1 hour = 60 x 60 =3600 seconds 3 hours = 3 x 3600 = seconds 9 minutes = 9 x 60 = 540 seconds Total = = seconds. 31 31 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 31

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**Assessment 7) How can different units of measure cause confusion?**

Newton's First Law of Motion Assessment 7) How can different units of measure cause confusion? Answer: A person might express temperature in Fahrenheit degrees, while another person might express it in Celsius degrees. When these two persons interact it could cause confusion. Answer: A person might express temperature in Fahrenheit degrees, while another person might express it in Celsius degrees. When these two persons interact it could cause confusion. 32 32 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 32

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 8) List the following in order from smallest to largest : 10 m, 900 cm, 9 km, 100 mm Answer: 100 mm, 900 cm, 10 m, 9 km Answer: 100 mm, 9000 cm, 10 m, 9 km Reason: 900 cm = 9 m 33 33 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 33

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 9) Match the following quantities with their corresponding SI Units Temperature kilogram Volume Kelvin Mass meter Length cubic meter Weight second Time Newton 34 34 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 34

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**Newton's First Law of Motion**

Assessment 10) Look at the data in the table below and answer the following questions. Question 1 : According to the table, express Samuel’s weight in kilograms for the three months? Answer: kg, kg, 41 kg Question 2: Who weighs the heaviest during the month of March? Answer: Samuel Student weights: Jan – Mar 2009 Student Jan Feb Mar Geisha 38.2 kg 39 kg 38.7 kg Samuel 42,450 g 42,400 g 41 kg Lisa 36 kg 36.4 kg 37 kg Rachel 40,456 g 40,000 g 40,200g Answer: kg, kg, 41 kg Samuel 35 35 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc. 35

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Practice A block of wood is 0.3 m by 0.2 m by 0.1 m. Find its dimensions in centimeters. What is the volume in cubic centimeters? Notes: 0.3 meters = 0.3 x 100 = 30 cm 0.2 meters = 0.2 x 1000= 20 cm 0.1 meters= 0.1 x 1000=10 cm Volume = 30 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm = 6000 cm3 36 36

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Thank You! 37 Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.

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