Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Media Study Unit"— Presentation transcript:
1 Persuasive Media Study Unit The Art of PersuasionPersuasive Media Study Unit
2 The art of speaking and writing persuasively. Rhetoric:The art of speaking and writing persuasively.Persuasive WritingDefinition: Writing that takes a position either for or against an issue while attempting to convince its readers to believe the same or act upon an issue.
3 Persuasive Writing is Everywhere! RadioPoliticsStores/RestaurantsThe InternetNewspapersMagazinesAdvertisementsTelevision Commercials
4 In the Art of Persuasion, your argument needs to have the following: A realistic (and legal) stanceLogical reasoningNo whining, no attitude – choose your words carefullyAcknowledge concerns or reasons against your positionOffer a compromise, alternative, or consequence (depending on the topic)
5 Persuasive Writing Tips There is more to persuasion, however, than simply having an opinion on something. You need:facts and examples to back up those opinions.To consider your audience and appeal to your reader.To research your topic in order to establish a strong understanding of what you are fighting for.To structure your argument in a way that is easy to understand and follow
6 Secret Persuasive Tricks… Shhh! Believe it or not, there are actual persuasive tricks you can use that, when used correctly, prove to be very effective in helping you get your way. These tricks were created by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and are called:Ethos – Credibility of the authorPathos – Appealing to the reader’s emotionsLogos – Persuading through reasoning
7 Ethos = EthicalThe ethical appeal, meaning to convince an audience of the author’s credibility or character. An author would use ethos to show to his audience that he is a credible source and is worth listening too. Ethos is the Greek word for “character.” The word “ethic” is derived from ethos. We tend to believe people we respect and trust. One of the central problems of argumentation is attempting to prove to your readers that you are someone worth listening to. To help achieve this, persuasive writers turn to ethos.
8 Ethos Continued… Ethos is used to… Show you are an authority on your subjectYou are a credible source of informationYou are trustworthy, likeable, and worthy of respect.Ethos can be developed by choosing language that is appropriate for the audience and topic (also means choosing proper level of vocabulary), making yourself sound fair or unbiased, introducing your expertise or pedigree, and by using correct grammar and syntax.
9 Example of Ethos: McCain’s Announcement for Presidency Speech "Today, I announce my candidacy for President of the United States. I do so grateful for the privileges this country has already given me; mindful that I must seek this responsibility for reasons greater than my self-interest; and determined to use every lesson I've learned through hard experience and the history I've witnessed, every inspiration I've drawn from the patriots I've known and the faith that guides me to meet the challenges of our time, and strengthen this great and good nation upon whom all mankind depends.”
10 Pathos = PassionThe emotional appeal, meaning to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions. Authors use pathos to invoke sympathy from an audience; to get them to feel what the writer feels. A common use of pathos would be to draw pity or inspire anger from an audience, or to prompt an action. Pathos is the Greek word for both “suffering” and “experience.” The word pathetic is derived from pathos. Along with our credibility as authors, our choice in words too can have an effect on our readers. Using words that provoke emotions within our readers, or appeal to their feelings can have just as strong of an affect as solid facts.
11 Pathos Continued… Pathos is used to… Show you understand your readers’ feelingsThat you can relate to your readersTo provoke a desire to act upon your emotionsPathos can be developed by using meaningful language, emotional tone, emotion evoking examples, stories of emotional events, and implied meanings.Note: An over use of pathos can however have a negative effect on your argument. (you might sound whiney)
12 Example of Pathos: Martin Luther King, Jr.’s I Have a Dream Speech "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."
13 Logos = LogicalThe appeal to logic, meaning to convince an audience by use of logic or reason. To use logos would be to cite facts and statistics, historical and literal analogies, and citing certain authorities on a subject. Logos is the Greek word for “word;” however, the true definition goes beyond that, and can be most closely described as “the word by which the inward thought is expressed. The word “logic” is derived from logos. Logos is the most important of the three persuasive techniques. It is the heart of the argument, the reasons behind your beliefs, and cannot be emphasized enough in your writing.
14 Logos Continued… Logos is used to… Back up your claims/beliefs with facts and evidenceProvide examples of what you are for or againstProvide logical ways to solve the problem you are addressingPrevent your reader from being able to argue against you.Logos can be developed by using advanced, theoretical or abstract language, citing facts (very important), using historical and literal analogies, and by constructing logical arguments.
15 Example of Logos: Brett Arrends "Is Apple Becoming a Value Stock Example of Logos: Brett Arrends "Is Apple Becoming a Value Stock." on Marketwatch.com June 21, 2011Apple has come down from $363 in February to $316 Monday. Furthermore, that masks the fact that the company is sitting on a ton of net cash. At the end of the last quarter, cash, securities and other liquid assets exceeded liabilities by $51 billion, or around $55 a share. This may top $60 by the end of this quarter. So the cash-free stock price — the enterprise value of the business — may only be around $260. That’s barely 10 times forecast earnings of $25 for the fiscal year ending in September. It’s just nine times next year’s forecast earnings. And it’s only around 2.3 times this year’s sales.
16 Persuasive Movie Speeches Braveheart:Scent of a Woman:A Time to Kill: