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Intelligence How is intelligence measured?

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1 Intelligence How is intelligence measured?
Binet’s test of intelligence The concept of mental age The intelligence quotient The Stanford-Binet test Other tests of intelligence The Wechsler scales The Kaufman assessment battery for children Infant intelligence The Bayley scales of infant development Habituation and preference measures What is intelligence? The Psychometric view Nature/nurture and the stability of intelligence Is intelligence a single attribute? Factor analysis Spearman’s “g” and “s” Thurstone’s primary mental abilities Guildford’s Structure of Intellect Cattell’s Fluid versus Crystallized intelligence The information processing view Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence Context, experience, and information-processing skills What do intelligence tests predict? Scholastic achievement Occupational status Health, adjustment, and life satisfaction Common uses (and abuses) of IQ tests A historical look at IQ testing Uses of IQ tests Terman’s mass testing of children Yerkes’ army mental testing

2 Measures of Intelligence
The Stanford-Binet test Mental age and chronological age The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) The Wechsler Scales The Kaufman Assessment battery for children Sequential skills Simultaneous skills Measures of Infant Intelligence Bayley Scales of Infant Development Subscales of development The Developmental Quotient (DQ) Habituation and preferential looking measures

3 The Psychometric View of Intelligence
Intelligence can be thought of as a trait, or set of traits, that characterize some people to a greater extent than other people Four different psychometric view The ability to carry out abstract thinking (Terman, 1921) The capacity of an individual to act purposefully and think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment (Wechsler, 1944) Innate, general cognitive ability (Burt, 1955) All of the knowledge a person has acquired (Robinson & Robinson, 1965)

4 Factor Analysis Test Items: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Highly correlated test items: 1, 3, 4, 8 2, 5, 9, 10 6, 10 Factor Structure: Questions related to verbal ability Questions related to mathematical reasoning Questions related to spatial abilities

5 Guildford’s (1967) Structure of Intellect Model
Content: What a person thinks about Operations: The kinds of thinking required Products: The kinds of answers required

6 Raymond Cattell’s Fluid versus Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid intelligence: The ability to solve abstract relational problems that have not been explicitly taught and are free of cultural influences Ex., Verbal analogies, memory for lists, etc. Crystallized intelligence: The ability to solve problems that depend on knowledge acquired in school or through other experiences Ex., General information, word comprehension Developmental flavor

7 Sternberg’s (1985) Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Information processing components: Context: Acts qualify as intelligent depending on the social or sociocultural context in which they occur Experience: One’s experience with a task helps determine whether one’s actions qualify as intelligent behavior Information-processing skills: Estimates of intelligence should also include “how” a person produces an intelligent response, as well as the correctness of that response

8 What Do Intelligence Tests Measure?
IQ and scholastic achievement IQ predicts academic achievement Caveats IQ and occupational success IQ and job prestige IQ and job performance IQ and health, adjustment, and life satisfaction Terman’s longitudinal study with school children Family environment hypothesis

9 Binet’s Principles for the Use of the Intelligence Measure
The scores are a practical device; they do not support any theory of intellect. They do not define anything innate or permanent. We do not designate what they measure as “intelligence.” The scale is a rough, empirical guide for identifying mild-retarded and learning disabled children who need special help. It is not a device for ranking normal children. Whatever the cause of difficulty in children identified for help, emphasis shall be placed on improvement through special training. Low scores shall not be used to mark children as innately incapable Gould, 1981, p. 155

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