Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer O Answer the following questions in your notebook pg 50. O 1. Identify the following macromolecules. a. b. Discuss the type of bond for each."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer O Answer the following questions in your notebook pg 50. O 1. Identify the following macromolecules. a. b. Discuss the type of bond for each and the process by which this occurs. Duff A;dlfka;dlfkas;ldkfsa;dlkfal;s dkdlkfa;sldkf;alsdkfldfkdlkfld lllllllll
What is an enzyme? O Proteins that act as biological catalysts. All chemical reactions in your body require enzymes
Definitions associated with enzymes O Catalyst - A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction O Substrate - reactants in the enzymatic reaction, this is what an enzyme attaches to
Why are enzymes important? O Chemical reactions take a long time to happen OR require too much energy. O Enzymes help speed up the time it takes for reactions to happen OR allow the reaction to happen without using up too much energy
What is activation energy? O In chemical reactions, energy is either released or absorbed. O In order to get the chemical reaction started, it requires a certain amount of “Activation Energy”
Discuss in your notes O Observe the information presented in the graph O What do you observe about the energy of reactants with enzymes compared to without enzymes?
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions? 1. Chemical compounds attach to the ACTIVE SITE of an enzymes 2. The SUBSTRATE are the specific substances that can bind to enzymes 3. Enzymes hold the substrate in place so the chemical reaction can happen 4. After reaction is finished, enzyme releases the PRODUCTS and helps another substrate.
Do enzymes need a specific environment? O YES O They are sensitive to pH (acidity) and temperature O Human body is 37 C so most enzymes function best at this temperature O Different organs have different pH (like the stomach) so enzymes “adapt” to their specific environments
What happens to enzymes out of their preferred environments? O Enzymes can be denatured - they change shape so much that they are no longer effective. O High temp or pH can cause this to occur
Enzymatic Inhibition - when a substance binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. (Usually reversible) TYPES OF INHIBITION: Competitive inhibition & noncompetitive inhibition
Some inhibitors are NOT reversible - poisons like cyanide, lead poisoning all affect enzymes QUESTION: What type of inhibition is pictured below?
Write in your journal/notes… O Describe what is happening in each phase of this picture.
How do we name enzymes? O They are named for the reaction the catalyze and have the suffix –ase attached to the end O Ex. Lipase – breaks down lipids O Protease – breaks down proteins O Amylase – breaks down starch or amylum O Lactase – breaks down lactose (milk sugar)
Properties of Enzymes: NEED TO KNOW! Enzymes are made of proteins. They speed up chemical reactions inside the cytoplasm. They are needed only in small amounts They remain unchanged after each reaction and can therefore be reused Each enzyme is specific for a substrate
Write the following questions and answers in your notes. 1. Why are enzymes necessary for life? 2. What is the active site of an enzyme? 3. How do enzymes catalyze chemical reactions?