Presentation on theme: "POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES Process during polymerisation, an alkene undergoes an addition reaction with itself all the atoms in the original alkenes are."— Presentation transcript:
POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES Process during polymerisation, an alkene undergoes an addition reaction with itself all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed ADDITION POLYMERISATION the equation shows the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER n represents a large number
Industrial Polymerisation Radical Polymerisation – 200°C and high pressure – Leads to branching of the polymer chain and polymer mixtures – Poly(phenylethene), poly(styrene) and branched Poly(ethene)
Industrial Polymerisation Ziegler-Natta process – Specialist catalysts: TiCl 3 and Al(C 2 H 5 ) 2 Cl at 60°C – Alkene is passed over the catalyst – Conversion is low and any unreacted alkene is recycled and passed over the catalyst repeatidly – Most common method for the manufacture of non-branched poly(ethene)
Questions State one key advantage of the Ziegler-Natta process over that of radical polymerisation – Greater control over the product formed leads to more straight chain polymers Draw a section of a polymer made from three molecules of ethene
Addition Polymerisation Drawing a polymer from a monomer – Draw the four groups at right angles – Replace the double bond with a single bond – Draw side links
POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES ETHENE EXAMPLES OF ADDITION POLYMERISATION PROPENE TETRAFLUOROETHENE CHLOROETHENE POLY(ETHENE) POLY(PROPENE) POLY(CHLOROETHENE) POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PVC POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE) PTFE “Teflon”
Questions Draw a section of the polymer that can be made from 1- chloropropene, showing two repeat units. The polymer on the right is poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. – Identify the repeat unit – Draw the structure of the monomer that forms PVA O
“Plastic” wallets and carrier bags are often made from PVC PVC as a leather substitute
Some uses of PTFE Non-stick coating for pans Low friction coating for surgical sutures Insulating tapes
Items made from polymers have recycling symbols moulded into them. High-density poly(ethene) HDPE and poly(propene) PP are particularly suitabel for recycling.
Task Working in pairs research how different types of polymers are recycled. – Group 1 - PETE – Group 2 - HDPE – Group 3 - V – Group 4 – LDPE – Group 5 - PP – Group 6 - PS – Group 7 – Other Report back to the class
POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. –they are unreactive to most chemicals and bacteria (non-biodegradable) –if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem recyclinghigh cost of collection and re-processing burn wastesaves on landfill sites and produces energy toxic fumes (HCl) can be removed from burning chlorinated polymers feedstock use the waste for the production of useful organic compounds new technology can convert waste into hydrocarbons hydrocarbons can then be turned back into polymers.
Questions Give two uses of polystyrene – Foam packaging, insulation, model making, food retail trade What do you understand by the term non- biodegradable? – A non-biodegradable material does not break down naturally or safely in the environment by biological means.
Questions Why is it important to replace polystyrene as a packaging material? – The non-biodegradability of polystyrene means that waste polystyrene ends up in landfill sites, which are rapidly running out of space. When PVC is burned poisonous gases may be released. Suggest two such gasses. – HCl and CO
A summary of how poly(propene) can be recycled.
Summary Addition polymer – very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene monomers Repeat unit – specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again Describe uses of certain polymers Outline how waste polymers are recycled, separated and processed Revise section 2.1.20 other uses of polymer waste