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Presentation on theme: "BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MOLECULES - Carbohydrates."— Presentation transcript:


2 BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MACROMOLECULES MACROMOLECULES: large, complex molecules made of repeating units of smaller molecules - POLYMERS: large molecule made of repeating units of smaller molecules held together by covalent bonds - MONOMERS: smallest repeating unit of a polymer that determines the properties of that polymer

3 BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules we will be studying: -Carbohydrates -Lipids -Proteins -Nucleic Acids


5 CARBOHYDRATES Sugars and starches that store energy in ways that are easily accessible Always contain C, H, and O in nearly the ratio of (CH 2 O) n, where n=# of C Polar molecules that dissolve in water due to the high proportion of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups

6 CARBOHYDRATES - Monsaccharides MONOSACCHARIDE: a group of carbohydrates made only of a single saccharide monomer; single sugar - C n H 2n O n

7 CARBOHYDRATES - Monosaccharides

8 Common Monosaccharides: - Glucose: blood sugar that cells use first for energy - Fructose: fruit sugar - Galactose: sugar found in milk *** These three are isomers, each with the same molecular formula but different structures

9 CARBOHYDRATES - Monosaccharides

10 Common Monosaccharides: -Ribose: found in RNA -Deoxyribose: found in DNA

11 CARBOHYDRATES - Disaccharides DISACCHARIDE: two monosaccharides covalently linked together; double sugar

12 CARBOHYDRATES - Disaccharides Common Disaccharides: -Maltose: glucose-glucose -Sucrose(Table Sugar): glucose-fructose -Lactose: glucose-galactose

13 CARBOHYDRATES - Disaccharides Formed by CONDENSATION/DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS reactions Forms GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGES between hydroxyl groups on C1 and C4 of adjacent sugars

14 CARBOHYDRATES – Polysaccharides POLYSACCHARIDE: three or more sugars joined by glycosidic linkages between hydroxyl groups

15 CARBOHYDRATES – Polysaccharides Common Polysaccharides: Starch: how plants store glucose (alpha linkages on carbon- 1) Glycogen: how animals store glucose (alpha linkages on carbon-1; many more branching side chains than starch) Cellulose: structural support in plant cell walls (beta linkages on carbon-1); indigestible by humans ** All of these are composed of monomers of glucose that are linked together in different ways

16 CARBOHYDRATES – Polysaccharides


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