Presentation on theme: "* Poly = many; -mer = part. A polymer is a large molecule consisting of many smaller sub-units bonded together called monomers * Monomers are covalently."— Presentation transcript:
* Poly = many; -mer = part. A polymer is a large molecule consisting of many smaller sub-units bonded together called monomers * Monomers are covalently linked to one another through the removal of water (dehydration reaction) to form polymers.
What is a polymer? Polymer is a long molecule consists of a chain of similar building molecules (monomers) covalently bounded together. Polymers principles: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Lipids Lipids Proteins Proteins Nucleic acids Nucleic acids
Q: How do monomers connect? A: By dehydration reaction One monomer provides a hydroxyl group One monomer provides a hydrogyn group Covalent Bond
Monomers Polymer Polymer Monomers By Dehydration Forms Covalent bonds By Hydration breaks Covalent bonds
Monosaccharaides Based on the location of C=O Aldoses C (C=O) at the end of C chain (e.g. Glucose). Ketoses C=O is within the C chain ( e.g. Fructose ). Based on the number of C in the skeleton Triose (3C) e.g. Glyceraldehy de Pentose (5C): e.g. Ribose. Hexose (6C): e.g. Glucose, Fructose and Galactose
The hydration reaction disassembles the covalent bonds in the polymer and convert it to small monomers. This reaction dominate the digestive process with the help of specific enzymes. THIS REACTION NEEDS WATER. It happens when H and OH (from the water) attaches where the bond used to be. Add water
10 The dehydration reaction convert the small monomers into one large polymer. THIS REACTION PROVIDES WATER. It happens when H atom from one monomers attaches with OH from another one to create water and new polymer.
Disaccharides Consisted of 2 monosaccharide molecules during a dehydration reaction. e.g. Sucrose (table sugar): consists of Glucose + Fructose.
Polysaccharides Storage Starch (inplants) Starch (in plants) consisted of thousands of glucose molecules. Glycogen (in animals) consisted of thousands of glucose molecules. Structural Cellulose (in plants) consisted of thousands of β glucose molecules. Chitin (in insects ) N consisted of thousands of glucose molecules with a N atom in one end
β glucose molecules. It is consisted of β glucose molecules. “ Human cannot digest it, but some bacteria and protozoa can” It is the building material in insects. It is consisted of thousands of glucose molecules and an N atom at the end.
14 Consisted of few hundreds to few thousands of monosaccharaides Storage: provides sugar by hydrolysis Structural: building materials for the organism Cellulose (in Plants): It forms the micro-fibrils and cell wall in plants & it consisted of beta glucose molecules. Chitin It is the building material of the cuticle in insects. It consists of 1000s of glucose with N atom at the end. Surgical thread insects
*S*S tarch is a plant storage from of energy, easily hydrolyzed to glucose units *C*C ellulose is a fiber-like structural material - tough and insoluble - used in plant cell walls *G*G lycogen is a highly branched chain used by animals to store energy in muscles and the liver. *C*C hitin is a polysaccharide used as a structural material in arthropod exoskeleton and fungal cell walls.
Proteins is a polymer of amino acids “ there are 2o different amino acids”. The proteins are consisted of Hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, Amino acid and R group ( variable ) Amino acids are joined together with peptide bond by dehydration reaction. Side chain Amino group Carboxyl group CHR N H H C OHOHOHOH O
Click here to view the video The repeated sequence (N-C-C) is the polypeptide backbone.
Amino Acids HydrophobicHydrophilicIonized the amino acids that have hydrophobic R groups (non- polar). the amino acids that have polar R groups, making them hydrophilic. the amino acids with functional groups that are charged (ionized) at cellular pH (7). So, some R groups are bases, others are acids.
None Polar R Group Polar R Group Functional R Group
Lipids do not form polymer 20 Lipids FatsPhospholipidssteroids store large amounts of energy major components of cell membranes include cholesterol and certain hormones In a fat, three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a triacylglycerol.
In a fat, three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage creating a triacylglycerol. Phospholipids have two fatty acids attached to glycerol and a phosphate group( Two tails and a head ) the tails are hydrophobic and the head is hydrophilic. Cholesterol form sex hormones and Cholesterol
1. Fats Saturated Un-saturated The Fatty acid components are saturated (there is no double bonds between the carbons. All C are linked with H. Thus, it is saturated with H Most animal fats are saturated. They are solid at room temperature. Saturated fats-rich diet results in Atherosclerosis. These double bonds are formed by the removal of H atoms. They can be synthetically converted to saturated (solid) by adding H (Hydrogenation). Most vegetable fats (oils) and fish fats are unsaturated. They are liquid at room temperature.
there is no double bonds between the carbons “ Most animals Fats are saturated” And they are solid at the room temperature. The double bonds are formed by removing the H atoms. “ Most vegetables oils and fish oils are Un-saturated “ And they are liquid at room temperature.
l-fah 25 They are arranged as a bilayer and it forms a barrier between the cell and the outside since they are a part of the cell membranes. They have two fatty acids Attached to glycerol And a phosphate group amphipathic The phospholipids are amphipathic
macromolecules carbohydrates Mono- saccharid es Di- saccharid es Poly- saccharid es lipids Fats phospholipids steroids Nucleic acids Proteins Amino acids HydrophilicHydrophobic ionized
* Q1: Write whether each of the following statements is True (T) or False (F): * 1-The four classes of organic compounds- carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids are called polymers. * 2-Polysaccharides are polymers with few hundred to few thousand monosaccharides joined by peptide bond. * 3- The glucose monomers of cellulose are in the a configuration. * 4- Chitin is a structural polysaccharide. * 5-Starch can be digested by humans. * 6-Saturated fatty acids contain double bonds between carbon atoms. * 7-Stored polysaccharides in animals are known as starch. * 8-In cellulose, all glucose monomers are in Ɣ configuration. * 9-Lipids are not polymers. * 10- Glycogen is built up of several units of glucose monomers. * 11- DNA and RNA molecules contain a hexose sugar called fructose. *
* 6-Based on the number of C, sugars are classified into: * a)- trioses b)- pentoses * c)- hexoses d)- all a, b and c * 7-Which of the following polysaccharide is stored in plant cells: * a)- starch b)- cellulose * c)- glycogen d)- chitin * * 8-Polypeptides are formed when amino acids link together by: * a)- ionic bonds b)- hydrogen bonds * c)- ester bonds d)- peptide bonds * 9-Sex hormones are: * a-steroids b-fats c-phospholipids * 10-Saturated fats are: * a)- found in oils, and liquid at room temperature * b)- contain double bonds * c)- found in animal fats and solid at room temperature * d)- can be transformed into unsaturated fats by hydrogenation *