2 Terminology Matter – Anything that takes up space & has mass. Mass – Quantity of matterWeight – The pull of gravity on the mass of an object.Elements – Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter.Atom – Smallest unit of matter.
3 Terminology, continued…. Subatomic particles.ElectronNeutronProtonCompound: Two or more elements chemically combined.BondsCovalent – shares electronsIonic – based on electrical attraction
4 Qualities of a Compound They are all made of 2 or more elements.They are chemically bonded.They have a definite ratio.
5 More terms… Atomic number: The number of protons Mass number: Number of proton & neutrons.
7 Mixtures Combined substances that DO retain their original properties. Three types:Solution: Made of solute & solvent; do not come out of solution.Suspension: Settle out over timeColloid: Two statesSol state - liquidGel state - gel
8 Acids & Bases Acidity: Measurement of the amount of hydrogen ions. Alkalinity: Measurement of the amount of hydroxide ions.
9 Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds Organic - generally derived from living things and contain carbon.Inorganic – generally derived from non-living things.FOUR MAJOR GROUPSCarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
10 Water Properties of Water Cohesion – Attraction between like molecules.Adhesion – Attraction of water molecules to the molecules of a solid surface.Water is polar (unevenly charged)Oxygen has a slight negative charge.Hydrogen has a slight positive charge.
11 Polymers vs. MonomersPolymers: compounds consisting of repeating linked units.Monomers: Simple molecules composing each unit of a polymer.Macromolecule: A large polymer
12 Dehydration synthesis Condensation ReactionMonomers link to form a polymer; water is removed.
13 HydrolysisA polymer splits to form two monomers when water is added
15 Sugars Glucose, fructose, & galactose – C6H12O6 Isomers – same molecular formula, but different properties.Sucrose, lactose, & maltose – C12H22O11HOW CAN THIS BE??
16 Functional GroupsClusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecule.TypesHydroxyl –OH (alcohols)Amino group – NH2Sulfhydryl group – SHPhosphate group – H3PO4Carboxyl group - COOH
17 LipidsFunction:Barrier between aqueous environments inside & outside the cell.Cell MembraneEnergy storageFatsProtective CoveringsWaxesInsulation
18 Lipids, continued…. Fatty Acids: Monomers that make up most lipids. Composed of a long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl groupCarboxyl group: Hydrophilic, “water loving”Hydrocarbon chain: Hydrophobic, “water fearing”
19 Types of Lipids Triglycerides Fats – Solid at room temperature Oil – Liquid at room temperatureWaxesSteroidsCholesterol is an exampleDoesn’t contain fatty acids
20 Proteins Account for more than 50% of the dry weight of the cell Structural supportStorageTransportSignalingMovementDefenseIncrease the speed of chemical reactions.
21 Proteins, continued…. Amino Acids – monomers of proteins Amino acids are always in this form
22 Types of Proteins Dipeptides: Two amino acids bonded together. Polypeptides: A long chain of amino acidsEnzymes: Proteins that act as catalysts in intermediary metabolismCatalyst: Substances that speed up chemical reactions without being affected by the reactions themselves.
23 Nucleic AcidsComplex organic compounds that store important information in the cell.Nucleotides – monomers of nucleic acids
24 Types of Nucleic Acids DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid Stores information important for all cell activitiesSugar: deoxyriboseRNA: ribonucleic acidTransfers information essential for making proteinsSugar: ribose