Organic Molecules Carbon = building block of organic molecules Carbon is unique – Unstable: 2 nd level not full – Will bond up to four times 1 2 3 4 1 2 6 protons 6 electrons
Organic Molecules Carbon = building block of organic molecules Carbon is unique – Unstable: 2 nd level not full – Will bond up to four times Monomer: Small carbon molecules – Ex: Amino acid Polymer: chain of linked monomers – Ex: Protein monomer Polymer
Is Carbon stable with 4 electrons in its outer layer? Is Hydrogen stable with 1 electron in its layer? So what do atoms do when they are unstable? Problem: Drawing dot diagrams is time consuming. Try this instead! 1 dash = 2 electrons
Carbon creates 4 bonds to be stable Double bonds Triple bonds Ring structures Single bonds Very complex How many electrons? 1 Dash = 2 electrons
Carbohydrates Readily available food source C 1 : H 2 : O 1 ratio – Ex: Glucose = C 6 H 12 O 6 Monomer: Monosaccharides – Simple sugars – Bond to form larger sugars Polymer: Polysaccharide – Complex sugars Glucose (monosaccharide) Fructose (monosaccharide) Sucrose (Polysaccharide)
Carbohydrate Polymers: Polysaccharide Polysaccharides: Long chain of monosaccharides Ex: Starch: excess plant sugar converted & stored Ex: Glycogen: animal starch stored in liver & muscles Ex: Cellulose: used in plants to make cell walls glucose
Recap 1)How many electrons does Carbon have in the 1 st energy level? 2 nd energy level? 2)Which type of organic molecule is most commonly used as energy for cells? 3)If a carbohydrate has 8 carbon atoms, how many oxygen and hydrogen atoms will it most likely contain? 4)What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? 5)What are the polymers of carbohydrates called? 6)Which polymer is stored by animals? 7)Which polymer is stored by plants?