Critical Thinking Analyse your assignment questions : What does this question mean? How much detail does your teacher require? Analyse your assignment questions : What does this question mean? How much detail does your teacher require? Where do I begin? Read about your topic – know your subject matter! Brainstorm ideas Think about Key Words & Key Concepts Write your thesis statement You must demonstrate that you are willing to examine popular beliefs, assumptions and opinions and weigh them against facts. Support your thesis statement with research.
Question! Question! Question! Is this source reliable? Is this source current? Have opinions changed? What are the current trends in this research area? Are there any gaps in the research? Is something missing? Who is the author? Are they an expert in this field? Do they represent multiple points of view or do they express bias for their own point of view?
Currency How recent is the information? Can you locate a date when the resource was written/created/updated? Based on your topic, is this current enough? Why might the date matter for your topic? Reliability What kind of information is included in the resource? Is the content primarily opinion? Is the information balanced or biased? Does the author provide citations & references for data? Authority Can you determine who the author/creator is? What are their credentials (education, affiliation, experience)? Who is the publisher or sponsor of the work/site? Is this publisher/sponsor reputable? Purpose / Point of View What’s the intent of the article (to persuade you, to sell something)? For Web resources, what is the domain (.edu,.com, etc.)? How might that influence the purpose/point of view? Are there ads on the Web site? How do they relate to the topic? Is the author presenting fact or opinion? C A R P
Scholarly vs. Popular Sources Popular Magazines Written by journalists, students, popular authors, or no author listed Flashy covers Advertisements Brief articles Trade Journals: Business, Finance, Industry (Written by experts, but may not be peer reviewed) Newspapers Scholarly Journals Written by experts Evaluated by experts: “Peer Reviewed” Authoritative Source Usually include: – Credentials of the Author – Abstract – Bibliography – Specialized vocabulary – Reference List
Can books be considered scholarly or popular sources too?
Scholarly Books Popular Novels, i.e, Harlequin Romance Written by journalists, students, popular authors, or no author listed May be written by a professional, but content intended for mass audience or advertising purposes Flashy covers No references or alternative sources listed Scholarly Written by experts Evaluated and/or edited by experts: “Peer Reviewed” Authoritative Source Publishers, i.e., University Presses Usually include: – Credentials of the Author – Abstract – Bibliography – Specialized vocabulary – Reference List Suzanne van den Hoogen, MLIS
Exercise: Let’s look at these websites http://www.who.int/en/ http://carca.ca/
Primary vs. Secondary Sources Secondary Written after primary sources Often use or discuss primary sources May include bias regarding an event or primary source May include: Biographies Journal articles History texts Movies of historical events Primary Original, first person accounts of an event Usually written at the time of or shortly after the event Examples: Audio—oral histories or memoirs, interviews, music Images—photographs, videos, film, fine art Objects—clothing (fashion or uniforms), tools, pottery, gravestones, inventions, weapons, memorabilia Statistics—census data, population statistics, weather records Text—letters, diaries, original documents, legal agreements, treaties, maps, laws, advertisements, recipes, genealogical information, sermons/lectures NOTE: Primary Sources are not just documents and written reports!
Why do we cite sources? Copyright: provides acknowledgement of the original author/creator Evidence: provides documentation to support your argument. Allows your teacher to find the sources you have cited. Research: demonstrates that you have researched your topic and used a variety of sources. Plagiarism & Academic Integrity: allows you to maintain academic integrity and avoid being accused of plagiarism.