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Gender and Socialization

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1 Gender and Socialization
Chapter 2

2 Links Intersex on 20/20:
Pregnant man: David Reimer: Killing us softly Youtube 6min version 5 min version full version Dreamworlds:

3 Gender Myths We tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and typically male characteristics with strength. He’s firm, but she’s stubborn. He’s careful about details, but she’s picky. He’s honest, but she’s opinionated. He’s raising good points, but she’s “bitchy.” We tend to see men as strong, not emotional and women as emotional and not strong, although we have seen those stereotypes change through the years and we are seeing them change even more.

4 Sex and Gender What is the difference?

5 Sex Biological distinction between females and males.
Factors used to determine biological sex: Chromosomes: XX for female; XY for male Gonads: Ovaries for female; testes for male Hormones Internal sex organs External genitals What does it mean if an individual is born intersexed?

6 Gender Gender is more fluid—refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or female it represents learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people as men or women. The nature-nurture debate? The story of David Reimer


8 Gender and Socialization
The process through which we learn attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors appropriate to the social positions we occupy Gender roles: The social norms that dictate what is socially regarded as appropriate female and male behavior When does gender role socialization begin?

9 Gender Roles in the United States
Gender-Role Socialization Boys must be masculine Active Aggressive Tough Daring Dominant Girls must be feminine Soft Emotional Sweet Submissive

10 What are sex roles?

11 Gender Identity Gender identity is the psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy, man or woman. Gender dysphoria Transexuals The pregnant man?

12 Gender Role Ideology Refers to beliefs about the proper roel relationships between women and men in a given society What is traditional American gender role ideology?

13 Theories of Gender Development
Biosocial Theory (sociobiology) Parental investment controversial Social learning theory Reward and punishment modeling

14 Theories of Gender Development
Identification theory Identification, observation, and modeling Cognitive-development theory Blends biological and social learning views Biological readiness influences how the child interacts with the environment

15 Gender and Socialization Agents
If sociology takes the stance that gender roles are learned through interaction with the environment, what influences the individual to behave as a man or woman?

16 Gender and Socialization Agents
Family Race/Ethnicity Peers Religion Education Economy Mass media

17 Gender Stereotypes are expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex. Such expectations can have negative physical and psychological consequences for males and females

18 How do forms of media portray gender norms and stereotypes?
What forms of media?

19 What are the advantages and disadvantages of being male and female?
What are the primary cultural messages that the media tells us about what it is to be male or female? Video What are the advantages and disadvantages of being male and female?

20 Traditional View and Gender Roles
Instrumental roles tend to be occupied by men in our society. They must be the provider and protector of the family. Expressive roles in our society tend to be played by women—they provide emotional support to the family, nurturing, etc. Should the man be the boss of the family? Why do traditional roles continue?

21 Consequences of traditional female gender roles
Positive Negative Longer life Stronger relationships focus Keeps relationships on track Bonding with children Identity not tied to job Less education/income Feminization of poverty Higher STD infection risk Negative body image Less marital satisfaction

22 Consequences of traditional male role socialization
Positive Negative Higher income/occupational status More positive self concept Less job discrimination Happier marriage Identity tied to work role Limited emotionality Fear of intimacy Shorter life

23 Do you think that gender roles are changing?
Are men becoming more feminine? Are women becoming more masculine? What is Androgyny?

24 Sexism and Sex Discrimination
Women suffer from sexism: attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or discriminates against individuals or groups because of their biological sex. U.S. society has traditionally been run by male-dominated institutions: Which institutions are still dominated by men?

25 Male Domination Does male domination exist in: Politics? Religion?
Media? Family? Economy?

26 Emergence of a Collective Consciousness
Feminism: belief in social, economic, and political equality for women Early 19th century feminists won many victories, including 19th Amendment 2nd feminism wave emerged in U.S. in 1960s As women became aware of sexist attitudes and practices, began to challenge male dominance and continue to

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