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If you could talk to anyone dead or alive, who would it be? Why? Think about this question and be prepared to share aloud with the class.
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Organizing is arranging ideas and elements into a systematic and meaningful whole Body is the main content of a speech that develops the speaker’s general and specific purposes Main points are the principal subdivisions of a speech
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Main points are broad, overarching statements that help to organize the main particulars you have found through your research. Relate your main points, specific purpose, and thesis. Present Your Main Points Be specific Use vivid language Show relevance Create parallel structure
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Time-Sequence Pattern Also known as Chronological Begins at a particular point in time and continues either forward or backward Spatial Pattern Content of a speech is organized according to relationships in space Appropriate for describing distances, directions, or physical surroundings Topical Pattern Order of presentation in which the main topic is divided into a series of related subtopics Likely to be used when other patterns cann0t be applied
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Consider the audience Culture may influence the organization Organizational strategies Mind Mapping — a visual organizational strategy that used words or symbols to identify the concepts and their connections to each other Narrative or Storytelling— an organizational strategy using a reporting of ideas and situations, as in a “story,” but without the traditional components of a story
Transitions A phrase or word used to link ideas Signposts A word, phrase, or short statement that indicates to an audience the direction a speaker will take next. Internal Previews Short statements that give advance warning, or a preview, of the point(s) to be covered. Internal Summaries A short review statement given at the end of a main point. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
An audience needs supporting and clarifying material to accept what a speaker says. It is crucial that each point be supported and that the support be relevant and logically organized. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The Introduction Opening statements that orient the audience to the subject and motivates them to listen Orients the audience to the topic Motivate the audience to listen Forecast the main points Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Subject or occasion Use personal references or narratives Ask rhetorical questions Present startling statement Use humor Use quotations State specific purpose/thesis 11
Make your topic relevant Establish credibility 12
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show that you are finishing the speech Make your thesis clear Review the main points End with a memorable thought Synthesize and summarize
End with a quotation, poem, or song lyric Tell a story that finishes the opening story Pose a rhetorical question Make a startling closing statement Issue a challenge or call to action Link back to the introduction to give the feeling of coming full circle with your topic
An informative speech challenges the audience to put the knowledge gained to use in their daily lives. Persuasive speeches demand audiences to take action or to change their beliefs on the topic. The conclusion should demonstrate the relevance of the topic to the audience to motivate the audience to respond.
Outlining Arranging materials in a logical sequence, often referred to as the blueprint or skeleton of a speech, and writing out that sequence in a standardized form. Principles of Outlining Subordination Coordination Parallelism Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Preliminary A list of all the points that may be used in a speech. Full-Sentence An outline that expands on the ideas you have decided to include in your speech. It identifies the main points and subpoints you will cover, written as full sentences. Presentational A concise, condensed outline with notations, usually a combination of full sentences and key words and phrases. This is the outline you work from when you present your speech. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Use only a few Always number the cards Write only on one side Use abbreviations Do not write out your speech Write intro/conclusion if needed List only main points and subpoints on cards Write out stats, quotes, etc. if necessary
Read page 236 titled, “Ordering Ideas in an Outline” Work with a partner to finish the outline We will check the answers together as a class
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