2 Presidential Leadership 9.1 Presidential Powers9.2 Roles of the President9.3 Styles of Leadership
3 9.1 Presidential Powers Constitutional Powers Informal Sources of PowerLimits on Presidential Power
4 Constitutional Powers The Founders wanted a strong executive branch to hold the legislative branch in check.Article II grants the president broad but vaguely described powers.
5 Constitutional Powers He heads the executive branch, is commander in chief, conducts foreign policy, and has judicial powers.
6 Informal Sources of Power Presidents have added to their powers by their actions.During national crises, presidents like Lincoln, FDR, and George W. Bush greatly expanded the powers of the presidency.
8 Informal Sources of Power Modern presidents claim their ideas and policies represent a mandate from the people.They use all forms of mass media to build support for their ideas.
9 Limits on Presidential Power Congress limits presidential authority by overriding vetos.It can also impeach and remove a president from office for clear abuse of power.The federal courts also limit the president’s power.
10 Only two presidents have ever been impeached. Andrew JohnsonBill Clinton
11 What about Richard Nixon? He resigned before the House could impeach him.
12 Limits on Presidential Power The federal courts also limit the president’s power.The Supreme Court can overturn presidential actions. Ex: Truman in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer (1952).
13 What decision did the Supreme Court make against Truman in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer (1952)?
14 Limits on Presidential Power The federal bureaucracy can limit presidential power by obstructing programs or failing to carry them out properly.Public opinion can limit the president’s actions. Ex: LBJ’s policies in Vietnam
15 9.2 Roles of the President Seven Key Roles of the President Head of StateChief ExecutiveChief LegislatorEconomic PlannerParty LeaderChief DiplomatCommander-in-Chief
16 Seven Key Roles of the President Head of StateChief ExecutiveChief LegislatorEconomic PlannerParty LeaderChief DiplomatCommander-in-Chief
17 Head of StateThe president represents the nation at ceremonial functions.He is a symbol of the entire United States.
18 Chief ExecutiveThe President heads the 2 million person executive branch.He influences how laws are executed through executive orders, presidential appointments, removal of appointed officials, and impoundment.He grants pardons, reprieves, or amnesty.
19 Chief LegislatorThe President proposes legislation to Congress, usually in the State of the Union Address.He must work harder for congressional support when the opposition party controls Congress.
21 Chief LegislatorHe may use political favors to gain congressional support.He has the threat of the veto to influence Congress.
22 Economic PlannerThe President has gained great economic powers since the New Deal.He promotes high employment, production, and purchasing power.He is required to prepare the federal budget each year.
23 Party LeaderThe President helps raise party funds and plan campaign strategies.He uses political patronage to appoint party members to government jobs.
24 Chief DiplomatThe President directs foreign policy and oversees foreign affairs information agencies.He has sole power to make treaties, with Senate approval.
25 Chief Diplomat He may make executive agreements with foreign nations. Executive agreements have the force of treaties but do not require congressional approval.
26 He has the sole power to recognize foreign governments. Chief DiplomatHe has the sole power to recognize foreign governments.
27 Commander-in-ChiefThe President has the power to wage (not declare) war and makes key military policy decisions.He supports war efforts on the home front during wars.He may use the military to end disorders or help in natural disasters.
28 9.3 Styles of Leadership Increased Responsibilities Leadership Qualities and SkillsPresidential IsolationThe Use of Executive Privilege
29 Increased Responsibilities The Founders expected Congress to lead the nation.Modern presidents have provided strong leadership for the nation.Presidents provide leadership in introducing bold new ideas.They also respond to crises at home and abroad.
30 Leadership Qualities and Skills Presidents must know and understand the people of the United States.They must be able to communicate effectively and to explain their policies clearly in order to inspire public support.
31 Leadership Qualities and Skills Presidents must know when the time is right to introduce new policies or make key decisions.
32 Leadership Qualities and Skills Successful presidents must:be flexible and open to new ideas;be able to compromise;have political couragebe willing to go against public opinion when they think it is necessary for the nation’s interests.
33 Presidential Isolation The special treatment risks isolating presidents from information and advice they should have to carry out their duties effectively.Presidents may discourage staffers from disagreeing with them or giving them unpleasant advice.
34 Presidential Isolation Advisers sometimes flatter the president with only good news and favorable opinions to maintain access to the president.Top staffers or advisors control access to the president.Dealing with White House staff is time-consuming.
35 The Use of Executive Privilege Presidents invoke executive privilege to keep discussions and advice confidential.
36 The Use of Executive Privilege Modern presidents have claimed that executive privilege also protects their communications with other members of the executive branch.
37 The Use of Executive Privilege The Supreme Court has ruled that executive privilege is constitutionally based.