Presentation on theme: "Ions An atom that carries an electrical charge is called an ion If the atom loses electrons, the atom becomes positively charged (because the number of."— Presentation transcript:
Ions An atom that carries an electrical charge is called an ion If the atom loses electrons, the atom becomes positively charged (because the number of positively charged protons will be more the number of electrons) If the atom gains electrons, the atom becomes negatively charged (because there are more negative charges than positive)
Ions The number of protons does not change in an ion. The number of neutrons does not change in an ion. So, both the atomic number and the atomic mass remain the same.
Ions This atom has lost an electron. Now it has one more proton than electron. One more proton means one more positive charge. This makes the total charge of the atom POSITIVE. This atom has gained an electron. Now it has one less proton than electron. One less proton means one less positive charge. This makes the total charge of the atom NEGATIVE.
Isotopes The number of protons for a given atom never changes. The number of neutrons can change. Two atoms with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes Isotopes have the same atomic # Isotopes have different atomic Mass # ’ s
Isotope Notation Isotope Notation uses a symbol to convey information about an isotope of a particular element. 23 Na 11
Isotope Notation Is the # of protons (p + ) in the atom AND 23 Na 11 Atomic Number The # of electrons (e - ) IF the atom is electrically neutral ( i.e., not an ion). This number is on the periodic table. Mass Number Is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. This number tells us the kind of isotope. This number is NOT on the periodic table.
For this isotope 11 p + + 11e - 0 net charge Isotope Notation 23 Na 11 23 Na + 11 For this isotope 11 p + + 10e - 1 + net charge
Isotope Notation 23 Na 11 Atomic Number The # of protons + the # of neutrons Calculate the number of neutrons for this isotope. 23 (neutrons + protons) - 11 protons = 12 neutrons Mass Number
Atomic Mass Is the weighted average mass of all the isotopes of one element in atomic mass units (amu). In other words, it is the mass of one average atom*. Two measurements are needed in order to calculate this average. 1.The percent abundance (% abundance,) also known as how often the isotope occurs in nature. 2.The mass of one atom of one isotope. Atomic mass is also known as Weighted Average Atomic Mass Average Atomic Mass
Atomic Mass Here is the formula you need to know in order to calculate the average atomic mass. Average Atomic Mass = [(Mass of Isotope 1) x (% abundance of Isotope 1)] + [(Mass of Isotope 2) x (% abundance of Isotope 2)] + and so on for the 3 rd and remaining isotopes. The average atomic mass is written on the periodic table
Mass Number vs. Atomic Mass Mass number = # protons + # neutrons (This number is specific for one isotope.) Atomic mass = weighted average mass of all the isotopes of one element in atomic mass units (amu). (The atomic mass is on the periodic table.)