4 From Poles= cold-water currents From Equator= warm-water currents Example: The Gulf Stream*The direction of the current depends on the direction of the windFrom Poles= cold-water currentsFrom Equator= warm-water currents
5 The Gulf StreamCurrent in N. Atlantic that transports warm water (heat) toward the poles
6 Math Break! ºC º F ºF =( 9 X ºC) + 32 Math Break! ºF º C 5Math Break!ºF º CºC = 5 X (ºF – 32)9
7 Copy the following questions: How does the Coriolis Effect cause currents in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere to turn? Draw this.What is continental deflection?What factors cause water density to increase?Does dense water sink or float?List an example of a current.What is El Nino?What type of damage can El Nino cause?What is an undertow or rip current?What is a tsunami?What are spring and neap tides?When and how often do these tides occur?
8 The Coriolis EffectMoving objects curve (don’t move in a straight path) because of Earth’s rotation (turning)
9 The Coriolis Effect Currents in the Northern Hemisphere turn clockwise Currents in the Southern Hemisphere turn counter clockwise
10 Coriolis: Down the toilet! Northern Hemisphere = clockwiseSouthern Hemisphere =counter clockwise
12 Increase density= water sinks to the ocean floor = deep current Deep CurrentsCurrents far below the surfaceNot controlled by winds or Coriolis EffectDepends on density of waterDensity depends on temperature and salinityDecrease temperature (cold)+increase salinityIncrease density= water sinks to the ocean floor = deep current
15 Surface Currents & Climate Surface currents affect the climate of the world*warm-water currents or cold-water currents
16 Surface Currents & Climate warm-water currents create warm climates in coastal areas (continent borders)East coast= Gulf Stream West Coast= cold-water current
17 El Nino This changes the surface water and weather patterns Upwelling- Cold water from deep ocean rises and replaces warm surface waterThe warm water is blown out to sea by prevailing windsEl Nino is the change in location of warm and cool surface water in the Pacific OceanThis changes the surface water and weather patterns
18 El NinoChange in location of warm and cool surface water in the Pacific OceanCold water from deep ocean rises and replaces warm surface water
19 El NinoPacific is calmContinues to growDeveloping
20 El Nino This changes the weather patterns Causes disasters such as floods and mudslides or droughts (periods without rainfall)
21 Waves Movement of energy across the ocean surface Caused by wind blowing across the surface
22 Parts of a WaveCrest- highest point of waveTrough- lowest point
23 Parts of a WaveWave length- distance between wave crests or wave troughsWave height- vertical distance between the crest and trough
26 Longshore CurrentsLongshore currents are responsible for most sediment transport in beach environments.This movement of sand and other sediment both tears down and builds up the coastline.Unfortunately, longshore currentsalso carry trash and other types of ocean pollution, spreading it along the shore.
27 Whitecaps are white, foaming waves that break. Swells are rolling waves that move across the ocean.
28 TsunamisTsunamis- waves that form when a large volume of ocean water is suddenly moved up or downCaused by: earthquakes, volcano eruptions, landslides or underwater eruptions
30 Tides Tides- daily change of the level of the ocean’s surface Tides are influenced by the sun and the moon
31 Gravitational PullTides- daily change of the level of the ocean’s surface
32 High Tide & Low Tide The moon revolves (circles) around the Earth The moon’s pull is strongest on the part of Earth directly facing the moonThe ocean bulges toward the moonWater at the opposite side bulgesBulges= high tidesWater is drawn away between high tides= low tides
34 Timing Tides Tides occur at different spots on Earth The moon revolves around the Earth more slowly than Earth rotates
35 It takes 24 hours and 50 minutes for a spot Earth that is facing the moon to rotate and face the moon again
36 Spring Tides & Neap Tides Spring tides- tides with the greatest difference between ocean levels at high tide and low tideEvery 14 days (sun, Earth and moon all aligned)1st time – moon between the sun and Earth2nd time – Earth between the sun and moon
38 Neap TidesNeap tides- tides with least difference between ocean levels at high and low tidesOccur halfway between spring tides(sun, Earth, and moon form a 90° angle)Gravitational pull of the sun and moon work against each other
39 Paw Point Review!! Use your notes to answer the Paw Point questions. How does the Coriolis Effect cause currents in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere to turn? Draw this on the board.What is continental deflection?What factors cause water density to increase?Does dense water sink or float?List an example of a current.
40 Paw Point Review!! What is El Nino? Use your notes to answer the Paw Point questions.What is El Nino?What type of damage can El Nino cause?What is an undertow or rip current?What is a tsunami?What are spring and neap tides?When and how often do these tides occur?