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Unit 2: The Anglo-Saxon Period

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1 Unit 2: The Anglo-Saxon Period

2 Ancient Britain Early civilization: Egypt & Rome (Italy)
Britain (far away & mysterious) largest isle = Britons 2nd largest = Gaels these were Celts from Europe (date unknown) Some Celtic languages still spoken: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, & Breton Celts: farmers & hunters Druids: mysterious pagan priests Stonehenge: place of Druid rituals? Lots of myths: maybe were warriors, naked with blue paint (Braveheart???) 75 BC Britain invaded by Belgae - agriculture

3 Roman Britain 54 BC Julius Caesar defeated Britain, but they went home
53 BC same thing AD 43 Claudius defeated British & stayed this is why Latin tradition Celts - Latin - Germanic 2 big colonies: Colchester & London

4 Boadicea, The Celtic Warrior Queen
AD 60 Prasutagus (king of Britons - Iceni) died his wife Boadicea revolted against Rome killed 70,000 Romans she was defeated

5 The Coming of the Anglo-Saxons
Early 5th century: Rome is at war, needs its warriors - withdraws leaves Britain vulnerable for 100 years Germanic forces invade AD 449 Jutes (Danish) then Anglo-Saxons Anglos establish 3 kingdoms in North & midland Saxons establish 3 kingdoms in the South Modern England was Angle-lond

6 Anglo-Saxon Culture Anglo-Saxons: warlike, seafaring
lots of Germanic legends Beowulf (dragons, monsters, giants, trolls…) warriors, songs, big feasts, mead (fermented honey) Oral Tradition Scops (singers) Lays/lais (songs) Anglo-Saxon society: king, warriors (thanes), freemen (churls), slaves (thralls) believed in FATE “wyrd” “wergild” = man money

7 The Coming of Christianity
Christianity = Catholicism by 5th c. Ireland was converted by St. Patrick England was converted by St. Augustine Changes culture Create education systems monasteries & monks Begin keeping history

8 Alfred the Great Becomes first King of Britain
created a system of education spread English as language rebuilt monasteries is responsible for translation of: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History AD 8th-9th c. Danes (Vikings) (Scandanavia) invaded Anglo-Saxon England bad news…would have won if not for Alfred the Great (ruler of 4th largest kingdom) AD 878 defeated the Danes, unified England

9 The End of the Anglo-Saxon Era
AD King Athelstan conquered the rest of England, making it one nation AD 960 Danish invade again 1016 Canute (Danish) crowned king…Danish control Doesn’t last long…back to English rule 1066 Norman duke William the Conqueror defeated King Harold end of Anglo-Saxon Era

10 Rulers Egbert Ethelwulf Ethelbald Ethelred I Alfred the Great
Edred Edwy the Fair Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Ethelred II the Unready Edmund II Canute Harold I Hardecanute Edward the Confessor Harold II Egbert Ethelwulf Ethelbald Ethelred I Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Athelstan the Glorious Edmund I

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