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Published byRegina Gallagher
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Chapter 4: Section 4
Are poor conductors, have reactivity, solid nonmetals are dull, brittle, non- malleable, non-ductile.
Lower densities than metals
Ten out of the 16 are gases at room temperature
Iodine, sulfur, and carbon are solids at room temperature Bromine is a liquid at room temperature
Most are reactive and readily form into compounds
Fluorine is the most reactive
Usually gain or share electrons
When they gain an electron(s) from a metal it forms an ionic bond
When the share electrons with other nonmetals it forms a covalent bond
The carbon family: column 14
Each element can gain, lose, or share 4 electrons (have 4 valance electrons)
Only carbon is a nonmetal
Carbon is found in all living things Makes coal, gas, and oil (hydrocarbons)
Nitrogen and phosphorus are the nonmetals
Gain or share 3 electrons ( have 5 valance electrons)
Air is 80% Nitrogen Nitrogen does not react readily Diatomic molecules Element that exists in nature as two atoms
Contains oxygen, sulfur, and selenium which are nonmetals
Usually gain or share 2 electrons (have 6 valance electrons)
Oxygen is diatomic and triatomic (ozone- layer in atmosphere which screens out harmful radiation from the sun, is dangerous at ground level due it being highly reactive)
Oxygen reacts readily and is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust, and 2nd most abundant in the atmosphere
The halogen family: Column 17 All but Astatine are nonmetals
Gains or shares one electron (Have 7 valance electrons)
Called salt formers
Very reactive and dangerous to humans
Compounds that they form are very useful
The Noble gases: Column 18
They usually do not form compounds because they usually do not gain, lose, or share electrons. They have 8 electrons in their valance shell-this is a stable configuration
Exist in the earth’s atmosphere
Top of column 1 Has only one proton and electron
Makes up 90% of the atoms in the universe Its chemical properties differ very much from those of the other elements, it cannot be grouped into a family
Elements found in families 13-17, boundary between metals and non- metals on the table, forms a staircase
Have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals All are solids. Brittle, hard, good and somewhat reactive
Most common is Silicon
Most useful properties is their varying ability to conduct electricity-depends on temperature, exposure to light, and impurities. This is why they are called semiconductors
Identify properties of groups on periodic table. Use textbook pgs to answer the following: Who made the first periodic table? How did he order the.
Chapter 3, Section 4 Non-Metals and Metalloids Tuesday, November 17, 2009 Pages
Nonmetals, inert gases, and semimetals
Nonmetals and Metalloids. Life on Earth depends on certain nonmetal elements. The air you and other animals breathe contains several nonmetals, including.
Chapter 3: Elements and the Periodic Table
Nonmetals Sulfur Opposite properties of metals Not shiny
Non-Metals & Metalloids. Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals are not ductile or malleable. Solid.
1. Atom – smallest part. 2. Prot. = electrons (balanced) 3. Most of volume is space between nucleus & electrons 4. - w/lowest energy electron closest.
Properties of Non-metals. Your Body ► Most of your body’s mass is made of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. ► Calcium, a metal, and other elements.
Organizing the Elements
The modern periodic table
Reading the Periodic Table. A way of organizing & classifying elements Arranged in rows and columns.
The Periodic Table of Elements
** You need to add what is in RED to your notes
Classifying the Elements
2/13 Bellringer Answer Questions #1-2 on page 577.
NONMETALS & METALLOIDS
Nonmetals and Metalloids
Periodic Table of Elements (Organization)
4-4: Nonmetals, Inert Gases, & Semimetals
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