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German Capitulation War Weary Warriors, Wounded and Weak, Surrender.

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Presentation on theme: "German Capitulation War Weary Warriors, Wounded and Weak, Surrender."— Presentation transcript:

1 German Capitulation War Weary Warriors, Wounded and Weak, Surrender

2 Armistice and Peace  As a condition of an armistice, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on November 9, 1918  Army and Navy had, to varying degrees mutinied or disintegrated  Social Democrats declared a republic to prevent soviet style government  ARMISTICE November 11, 1918

3 Armistice  November 11, 1918  11 th hour of 11 th day of 11 th month  Railroad car in Compiegne, France

4 Treaty of Versailles 1919

5 Versailles … Hall of Mirrors

6 The BIG FOUR Woodrow Wilson USA David Lloyd George Great Britain Georges Clemenceau France Vittorio Orlando Italy

7 German Territorial Losses

8 Reparations  Reparations are money paid by the losers to winners after a war (for damages)  Germany was ordered to pay $33 billion  This was insisted upon by France and Britain  No way they could pay

9 Disarmament  Germany was disarmed (declawed) made completely defenseless  Army capped at 100,000  Navy limited to 6 battleships and 13,500 men  NO airplanes, NO submarines, NO artillery

10 WAR GUILT  This was arguably the most destructive element of the treaty  Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles stated that “Germany was solely guilty of having started the war.”  This placed all the blame on them for EVERYTHING  Germans HATED this

11 Allied Reaction to Treaty  Italy – Angry that they were denied land as promised in the Treaty of London (1915)  France – Angry that Germany was not humiliated and punished more  Japan – Angry that they were not treated as a great power even though they got Germany’s Pacific colonies  USA – Angry that Wilson tried to pull the country into world affairs against its will

12 Great Britain  Britain – Generally happy  Germany weakened as a naval competitor  Germany weakened as an economic competitor  Germany still viable enough to help limit France  Britain got many of German colonial possessions in Africa

13 New Countries in EUROPE 1.Finland 2.Estonia 3.Lithuania 4.Latvia 5.Poland 6.Czechoslovakia 7.Hungary 8.Austria 9.Yugoslavia

14 Other Points of Contention  Rhineland  Demilitarized  NO Germany military along border with France  Polish Corridor  Splits Germany  Gives away Germany’s largest port city

15 Versailles

16 Germany

17 Back in the USA  Even though he was disappointed with the Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson came home wanting it ratified by the Senate  The United States Senate must RATIFY (approve) any treaty by a 2/3 majority

18 American Isolationism 5 Isolationists like Senator Lodge, refused to allow the US to sign the Versailles Treaty. 5 Senate offered amendments BUT Wilson refused 5 Senate REJECTED the Treaty of Versailles 5 USA NEVER ratifies it 5 USA NEVER in League of Nations NO 5 We say NO Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. [R-MA]

19 Wilson’s Collapse  In a defiant effort to get the Senate to reconsider, Wilson went across the country trying to get the people on his side  He became exhausted, collapsed, suffered a stroke  He was an invalid the rest of his term

20 1920 Election  (D) James Cox  Wanted Senate to reconsider treaty  He agreed with Wilson  A vote for James Cox was saying “yes” to Treaty and League of Nations  (R) Warren Harding  Isolationist  Rejected League and Treaty  “Return to Normalcy”

21 Results of 1920 Election  HARDING WINS!!!  Voters reject League and reject internationalism  We want to go back to isolationism Warren Harding … “return to normalcy”


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